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Gladiolus has long ceased to be exotic in Russian dachas, but not every grower can properly plant the bulbs of this culture and care for them. Meanwhile, even small misses in the planting can lead to a decrease in the decorativeness of the plant or even to its death. To prevent them, it is enough to study the basic rules of cultivation of this unusual flower.
We create ideal conditions for gladioli
Beautiful, bright, juicy inflorescences of gladioli will delight only when the flowers are planted in the right place and in the properly prepared soil. Here, lighting and protection from the wind and the depth of groundwater play a role. With full compliance with the main criteria, gladioli will delight with their flowering for more than one year.
So, for the most courageous flower, sunny areas are suitable. In shading, they should be no longer than 2 hours a day! The more sun, the earlier flowering begins.
Important! Late varieties of gladioli in the absence of direct sunlight for more than 3 hours a day simply do not have time to bloom. But early varieties in such conditions behave as late.
The second criterion is the composition of the soil. Fortunately, in this regard, gladioli can be considered universal. Successful plant cultivation occurs on both sandy and loamy soils. But here there are subtleties! Connoisseurs of this flower argue that flowering will be more magnificent if, with an interval of 2-3 years, the growing conditions of the culture are changed. If in the early years to plant bulbs in sandy loam, then next year they should be planted in the soil with a lot of humus and clay, and in the third year they should be grown on loam.
The third criterion is the purgeability of the site. Gladioli do not tolerate stagnation of air. In such conditions, they weaken and are affected by various diseases, mainly fungal. That is why gardeners with experience prefer to plant them in areas open to winds.
How to prepare bulbs for planting
Preparation of gladiolus bulbs for planting
An important point in the cultivation of gladioli is the preparation of planting material. The gladiolus is characterized by reproduction by division, that is, rhizomes in the form of bulbs and the so-called "children" - small juvenile bulbs that grow annually at the base of the mother bulb.
Begin preparation at least 30 days before planting in the ground. It consists of several points:
- The rejection of damaged bulbs and their calibration.
- Dressing and treatment with various compounds to prevent diseases.
Choose the best bulbs for planting
Before you start to germinate the bulbs, you need to choose the best of them. These include:
- young corms with a diameter of 2 to 4 cm and a bottom with a diameter of not more than 7 mm;
- adult corms with a diameter of not more than 5 cm and a bottom of 8-9 mm.
It is important to pay attention to the number of sprouts and the presence of root tubercles. Bulbs with several sprouts are most often old. They bloom worse and practically do not reproduce "children." Also, a large number of sprouts may indicate infection of the planting material with a grass virus. Such plants form many leaf blades, but inflorescences on them can not be obtained.
What to do with rejected material? The best option is to burn. In some cases, landing in a place remote from the main flowerbed is allowed, but only if the affected areas are removed from the corms.
Bulb treatment before germination
If there are traces of thrips activity on the corms, it is recommended to treat them with Arriva or another insecticide (Aktara, etc.). With a weak lesion, the scab planting material is cut to a healthy tissue, and the sections are treated with brilliant green. You can also immerse the bulbs in a solution of potassium permanganate for 1-2 hours, or in a solution of Fundazol for 1 hour.
Corms affected by Fusarium and hard rot are to be destroyed.
To germinate the gladiolus bulbs, they are placed in a bright room with a temperature of at least +15 degrees and a humidity of at least 75%. It is important to decompose them correctly: on a flat horizontal surface (always dry), sprouts up. It is preliminary recommended to remove dense scales from the bulbs: so germination will go faster and more evenly.
Germination of juvenile bulbs is slightly different from the described option. So, it is recommended to treat them with solutions of potassium permanganate or foundationazole after the first seedlings appear. Planting material needs to be cleaned no more than 9 hours. After that, the bulbs are dried and planted in a permanent place, always separately from adult plants.
Technology planting gladioli
A place for planting gladioli should be prepared in the fall. At least 100 g of superphosphate and 30 g of calcium chloride are added per square meter of the future flower garden. You can add some clay and garden soil to the sandy soil to improve its quality and moisture capacity. Digging should be done deep, on the whole bayonet of a shovel. Gladioli are planted in early May (in the middle zone, Siberia, the Urals and the Non-Chernozem Territory) or in the last decade of April (in the southern regions).
The landing pattern is as follows:
- large bulbs - to a depth of at least 10-15 cm with a distance between plants of about 15 cm;
- small and juvenile bulbs - to a depth of 8 to 10 cm with a distance between them of 5-8 cm.
When planting, it is recommended to dig separate holes or make deep furrows. First they are watered, then sphagnum or calcined sand is laid on their bottom. Sprouted planting material is already placed on it, which is covered with soil.
Care for gladioli: watering and feeding
Care for gladioli consists of regular abundant irrigation with settled water and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers:
- when the third sheet appears, make nitrogen fertilizers (60 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 l of water), repeat the procedure after a week;
- with the growth of the 4th sheet, gladioli are fed with potassium at the rate of 60 g of potassium salt per 1 sq. m. beds, repeat after 7-10 days;
- with the growth of peduncles, plants feed 60 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt per square meter. m. beds.
During flowering, a little boric acid and potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) are added to the water for irrigation. After watering and top dressing, it is recommended to loosen the soil and mulch it with peat crumb.
After reading the corresponding article on our website, you can find out when to get out of the refrigerator and how to germinate the gladioli bulbs in the spring.
Possible growing problems
When growing gladioli, there is a risk of problems, most of which are associated with viral and bacterial infections. Insect pests also do not mind eating the pulp of the corms of the plant, its juicy roots and leaves.
The most common bacterial infections of gladiolus are fusarium, brown or black rot, and scab. It is pointless to combat them with the improvement of agricultural technology, since most often the disease destroys the bulb, and this inevitably leads to the death of plants. It is necessary to fight these diseases at the stage when the infection has not yet penetrated the gladiolus vascular system. Simply put, the most effective method of dealing with them is prevention.
Gladioli: planting bulbs
Gladiolus, when diligently, can become the center of any flower garden. High and low, with a diverse color palette, they are the perfect flower for decorating a flower garden. It is not particularly difficult to care for him, especially if you pay attention to the preparation of planting material.