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Pear is a popular fruit tree in a summer cottage, which yields only to apple trees. Tall and slender trees not only please the gardener's eye, but also provide his family with fresh or processed fruits. But far from always growing a pear is cloudless and without any problems. This culture is attacked by pests and is infected with a variety of infections that can not only reduce the number of marketable fruits, but also lead to the death of the plant.
When it's time to sound the alarm: signs of pear disease
Diseases on a pear can make a variety of symptoms known about their presence. Most often, plant infections such as cytosporosis, spotting, powdery mildew, and scab visit the crown and on the stands of pears. Less commonly, a tree can infect cancer (black or root).
The signs of the presence of these diseases can be fruit rot (wet or dry), darkening or lightening of leaf blades, deformation of fruits and young shoots, and the death of individual organs of the tree. You can also suspect the presence of diseases on the pear by the following symptoms:
- healthy-looking fruits crack, dry out or become moldy;
- leaf blades twist and fall;
- the tree drops its leaves very early, lags behind in growth, dries out;
- flowers and ovaries turn black and fall;
- the tree, despite the presence of flowering, does not bear fruit.
When faced with such problems, each gardener needs to carefully examine the pear plantations in order to find out the reasons why such metamorphoses occur to him. The omission of even a small amount of time can lead to the death of the entire garden!
Scab: signs, treatment and prevention
Scab is one of the dangerous mushroom diseases of the pear, which equally affects the leaves and fruits. Infection spreads better in moist, cool weather. It will not be difficult to notice its appearance for an attentive gardener, and the following are considered obvious signs of the disease:
- single leaf blades are covered with brown spots, which gradually grow;
- young shoots are covered with spots of gray-green color, which later turn into black, covered with velvety plaque wounds, and can lead to drying out of the shoot;
- the fruits are covered with small dark dots, which later merge into a dry black spot covered with cracks.
Even with an unexpressed manifestation, the scab leads to a strong grinding of the pear fruit, the deterioration of their taste. Only those gardeners who timely discovered the infection on pears and took measures to limit its spread and complete recovery of the tree can only avoid such a problem. These (measures) include:
- pruning and burning of single shoots affected by scab;
- treatment and disinfection of wounds on the bark of a tree;
- regular feeding so that the tree can independently resist infection;
- treatment of the crown and the stem with Skor and Vectra immediately after the leaves open;
- processing of the crown during budding with Bordeaux liquid (4%), the second treatment is carried out after flowering, but with a solution of a lower concentration (1%);
- Topaz treatment after flowering.
With a strong infection of the pear garden, Bordeaux liquid is used up to 6 times per season with an interval of 1 week. The 10% solution of ammonium nitrate also has good effectiveness against scab. They are advised to process the crown of the tree, its bark and even the soil under the pear after harvesting. It is possible to prevent the appearance of infection next year by carefully removing leaf litter and destroying it by burning.
Bacterial pear burn: signs and treatment
Powdery mildew: signs and methods of treatment
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that very often affects pear trees. Signs of infection are deformed leaf blades coated with a whitish coating and falling of the ovary. When this disease is affected, the pear does not bear fruit, and the tree itself is greatly weakened and can hardly tolerate winters.
It is recommended to fight this disease with fungicidal drugs, which include Sulfite and Fundazol. With solutions prepared in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the crowns of the trees are treated after fruiting. With high humidity, several treatments may be required. In spring, you also need to treat the entire garden with these products, including absolutely healthy pears.
An important preventive measure is the thorough cleaning of the garden from fallen leaves. Branches strongly affected by powdery mildew are recommended to be cut from trees during the growing season. Sections must be covered with garden varnish, so as not to open the gate to other infections.
Fruit rot: how to determine and how to treat a disease
In case the fruits rot on the pear, most likely, the tree was struck by fruit rot. The cause of this infection is moniliosis, a microscopic fungus that lives on the surface of an already grown and nearly ripened fetus.
A distinctive feature of this disease is the absence of shedding of damaged pears. Even if the fruit is completely rotten, it remains hanging on the branches until the next growing season. At the same time, it is a dangerous source of fungus that spreads to other branches of the tree and even to neighboring trees.
The only way to get rid of fruit rot is the timely removal of rotten fruits from plants. It is important to remove them with the peduncle before they mummify. It is important to prevent storage of pears infected with fruit rot, as they can become a source of infection for healthy fruits.
There are currently no specific chemical agents to combat fruit rot, but experienced gardeners note that an outbreak of this disease occurs with prolonged use of tools to help cope with scab.
Black cancer and cytosporosis: signs and treatment
Black cancer, as well as cytosporosis, affects only the bark of pear trees. Both of these diseases differ in appearance, but are treated with the same methods. It is still not known for certain why these infections affect one or another tree, since, according to statistics, even very strong and developed specimens can be sick. Most likely, the causes of infection are trauma to the bark during the care of the garden.
Black cancer manifests itself as small wounds on the cortex, which increase in size over time, and their borders are covered with brown spots that are blurred in shape. Further, black cancer begins to spread to leaf blades, fruits, and even flowers, leading to their gradual death.
Cytosporosis differs from black cancer in the form of wounds that look like small bulges on the pear bark, as well as redness of the bark around them. Over time, the disease passes to the leaves and ovaries, which causes their blackening and death.
Cancer and cytosporosis on pear trees can be completely cured only by removing the affected branches, shoots and fruits. If for this you need to remove the bark from the trunk, do not hesitate, as the pear can restore it when certain conditions are created. To rid the tree of the disease, it is recommended to clean the outer shells of the trunk and leaves on which the infection is detected, treat these places with a solution of copper sulfate, and then cover it with mullein mixed with clay.
Bacterial pear burn: treatment and prevention
A bacterial burn is fully consistent with its name, since its appearance resembles an invisible fire that has swept through a pear garden. Symptoms of the disease are suddenly appearing on young leaflets of brown borders. The tips of the ovaries are also getting dark. In some cases, if the trees become too early, the flowers turn black.
A bacterial burn is almost impossible to stop, since the infection lurks inside the tree, or rather, in its vessels. There she gets from the soil. With a weak lesion, trees can be repeatedly treated with boric acid or other solutions with antimicrobial activity. However, most often, gardeners have to completely destroy the tree, cutting it and uprooting the roots. At this place, it is not recommended to grow fruit for at least 4 years.
Bacterial burns can be prevented only by observing hygiene standards during spring or autumn pear formation. It is important to sanitize the tools after trimming each tree.
What to do if the pear does not bear fruit, does not bloom or does not grow
Sometimes it happens that a tree does not get sick, but it does not bloom and, as a result, does not bear fruit. The reasons for this situation may be as follows:
- planting self-fertile varieties to which pollinators have not "planted";
- death of inflorescences by return frosts at very early flowering;
- multiple transplantation of seedlings or the wrong choice of place for them;
- growing pears on depleted soil.
Fixing these problems is very easy. In the first case, it is necessary to plant a few more varietal pears on the site. With early flowering and freezing of inflorescences, it is recommended to slow down the awakening of the tree in the spring. To do this, it is enough to throw more snow into its trunk circle, and at the beginning of active melting cover it with light material or a thick layer of straw. True, this method has its drawbacks - the crown of the tree can dry out without waiting for sap flow.
Pear Rust Methods
In the event that the reasons are a lack of nutrients or inadequate lighting, it is recommended to do more nutrition with organic and mineral fertilizers. At the same time, full restoration of the tree can be expected within a few years.
Even the most experienced gardeners can face problems when growing pears. In this case, crop losses can be enormous. To avoid this, it is important to adhere to an agronomic framework designed specifically for the pear. With proper care, the trees will delight you with huge yields of beautiful and delicious fruits.