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Cucumbers are the most popular and sought-after crop for growing in polycarbonate greenhouses. The conditions created in these structures are ideal for them. High light transmission, low thermal conductivity and inertness to the effects of chemical and physical factors have turned this material into a real panacea for record yields. The microclimate created inside garden structures made of polycarbonate contributes to the active growth and fruiting of cucumbers. However, even here there are secrets to growing.
The benefits of growing cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouses
Polycarbonate is a polymeric cellular material that today has almost completely replaced glass and film. Even not year-round cultivation of cucumbers from it can not only satisfy the need of the gardener family for greenery, but also allows you to get a good income from the sale of surplus crops.
The advantages that a polycarbonate greenhouse has are obvious:
- Good light transmission, coupled with the delay of too bright rays that can harm plants.
- Excellent heat-insulating qualities acquired through numerous vacuum mini-chambers (cells) in the cavity of polycarbonate sheets.
- Lightness and flexibility, which make it possible to erect massive structures on soils unsuitable for high loads, even without a foundation and reinforced core.
- Durability and strength due to which the polycarbonate greenhouse withstands temperature extremes throughout the year, snow and wind loads.
In addition to the above, it is worth adding that when growing cucumbers under this material, ideal conditions for the growth of lashes and fruiting are created for them.
Equipment for growing cucumbers
For the successful growth of cucumbers in the greenhouse, it is necessary to carry out full care of them. Without a set of special equipment for greenhouses and garden tools, this will be problematic.
So that the crop of Zelentsy really surprised and pleased, it is advisable for summer residents to purchase the following tools:
- shovels, hoes and other devices for digging and loosening the soil;
- buckets and watering cans for irrigation or a complete drip irrigation system;
- heating devices (for year-round cultivation of cucumbers) or temporary heating (for early spring or autumn cultivation of greenhouses);
- automatic or semi-automatic installations on windows for regular ventilation of the greenhouse;
- phytosubvent for growing cucumbers in the winter or autumn-spring period;
- water containers made of dark polymeric material;
- shelves, racks and boxes for storing equipment inside the greenhouse.
The larger the polycarbonate greenhouse, the more devices you need to purchase, or you should bet not on the amount of equipment, but on its capacity (productivity). In small greenhouses, it is quite possible to do without an irrigation system, heating and automatic machines for opening window leaves.
How to plant seedlings of cucumbers in a greenhouse
The best varieties of cucumbers suitable for polycarbonate greenhouses
Before you develop a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is important to correctly choose the varieties of cucumbers. Ideal for greenhouses are:
- self-pollinated (parthenocarpic) varieties that for normal fruiting do not require the presence of bees and other insects in the greenhouse;
- varieties resistant to viral, bacterial and fungal diseases;
- well tolerating overheating and cooling varieties and hybrids.
These can rightfully include the following cucumbers:
|Variety / Hybrid Name||Ripening time||Productivity||Appointment|
|Pace (F1 hybrid)||Early ripe||High due to the friendly return of the crop||For fresh consumption and preparations|
|Blanca (F1 hybrid)||Early ripe||Above average, long term yield||Universal purpose|
|Aristocrat (F1 hybrid)||Mid early||High||For fresh consumption|
|Hally (grade)||Mid-season||High||For salads, preparations and fresh consumption|
|SM 5341 (F1 hybrid)||Mid-season||Very high, stable||For processing and fresh consumption|
|Herman (F1 hybrid)||Early ripe||Above average or high||For canning and salads|
|Courage (F1 hybrid)||Early ripe||High due to the formation of a large number of large greens||For salting and fresh consumption|
|Moscow Greenhouse (F1 hybrid)||Early ripening||High||For harvesting, salads and fresh consumption|
|Zozulya (F1 hybrid)||Mid-season||Very high||For pickles, marinades and salads|
|Relay race (hybrid F1)||Mid-season||High||Universal|
The joint planting of several varieties and hybrids allows you to grow greenhouses of various sizes and purposes in greenhouses.
Preparation and preventive tillage
Greenhouse varieties and hybrid forms of cucumbers undergo various diseases. To prevent infection and the normal development of plants, it is necessary to prepare the soil in a greenhouse in advance. To do this, it is enough to take the following steps:
- In the fall, treat the soil in the greenhouse with bleach or fungicides - Phytocide, Phytosporin or Trichodermin.
- Fill the soil with organic matter - fresh manure, fallen half-ripened leaves or hay (straw), planted them in the soil to a depth of not more than 30 cm.
- Loosen the topsoil to a depth of at least 20 cm before planting and spill it with hot water.
Thus prepared beds for cucumbers in the greenhouse will provide plants with nutrients, as well as generate heat, creating a suitable microclimate for the culture.
Scheme and landing time
There are two ways to plant cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouses:
In the first case, planting material is sown in advance, approximately 4 weeks before placement in a permanent place. It is better to do this in the last decade of March or in the early days of April. At the age of three weeks, grown cucumbers are planted in a greenhouse, trying to place no more than 5 plants per square meter.
When planting by seed, planting dates are shifted to mid or late April, depending on the temperature of the soil in the greenhouse. Seeds are placed in small holes to a depth of not more than 2 cm, watered and covered with a film or caps made of polymeric materials to create a greenhouse effect. The planting scheme with the seed method does not differ from seedling. However, it is recommended to sow several seeds in one well. As they grow, they leave the most powerful specimens.
Classical cultivation of cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouses implies the usual set of agricultural activities:
- Regular watering with water heated to a temperature of 20-23 degrees. It is for this reason that dark containers are installed inside the greenhouse, inside which the liquid heats up under the influence of sunlight.
- Loosening and / or mulching of the soil with rotted sawdust, decayed leaves and hay or humus. In addition to preserving moisture in the soil, mulch to a certain extent will fill the need for cucumbers in nutrients.
- Daily ventilation of the greenhouse, which helps to strengthen plants and prevents the development and spread of diseases of cucumbers, especially fungal diseases, in the greenhouse.
- Fertilizing with mineral and / or organic fertilizers. At the beginning of the growing season, you can use nitrogen fertilizing, and with the beginning of flowering, enrich the diet of cucumbers with potassium and phosphorus, as well as trace elements.
Equally important for cucumbers is the formation of lashes. This culture grows very quickly, so you need to form lashes once a week. Branched varieties pinch over the 6th leaf to form a large number of fruit-bearing shoots, while some hybrid parthenocarpic forms are recommended to be grown in one stem. Male flowers are better to pick off almost completely. Mustaches, damaged leaves and fruits, as well as thickening or weakened shoots, are subject to removal.
It is important to tie the lashes to the supports (trellises) in a timely manner. With multi-stem cultivation, the central lash is placed vertically, and the side ones are at an angle of 60 degrees to it. Single-stem cucumbers are always tied up vertically.
We also offer you to read an article that talks about the causes and elimination of the problems of the formation and growth of cucumber ovaries.
Problems in growing cucumbers in polycarbonate greenhouses
In general, there are not so many problems with greenhouse cucumbers as when growing this crop in open ground. However, there are many diseases and pests that prefer to live in greenhouses. Most often, cucumbers in polycarbonate shelters suffer from rot, anthracnose and various wilts.
To avoid problems, it is enough at the first signs of plant damage to diseases to treat the entire greenhouse, including the surface of the soil and walls, with microbiological fungicidal preparations - Gamair, Alirin, Trichocin or Gliokladin.
When and how to feed cucumbers in a greenhouse
Polycarbonate greenhouses are much more ergonomic and productive than glass or film. With the proper approach, the yield of cucumbers from one square meter in it is 3-4 times higher than in open ground.