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Siberia occupies most of the territory of Russia, the weather in this area does not imply the cultivation of crops. The cultivation of cucumbers in Siberia is complicated by unfavorable weather conditions. Since the warm weather is relatively short, this time is not enough for the full growing season of cucumbers. Most often, the cultivation of this crop in northern latitudes is carried out in greenhouse conditions. When to plant cucumbers in the north to get a good harvest? For the cultivation of cucumbers, you will have to try very hard.
How to choose the right variety for growing
The most important thing to pay attention to when cultivating cucumbers for seedlings in northern latitudes is the choice of the variety. Currently, breeders have managed to develop varieties that can withstand cold weather and sudden changes in temperature. When choosing planting material, you need to rely on indicators such as government analyzes and zoning in the northern regions. Such cucumber seeds are more persistent and can bring a good harvest even when planting cucumbers in open ground.
What varieties are considered the best for Siberia?
The best varieties of cucumbers for Siberia:
Altai is an early maturing variety suitable for Siberia. Pollinated by bees. Can be planted both in greenhouse shelters and in the garden in the beds. The main difference is resistance to a sharp drop in temperature. Immunity to diseases is average. Ripe fruits are suitable for whole pickling.
Cucumbers grow well even with sharp drops in temperature. An early ripe variety, vegetables ripen in large quantities. Growing cucumbers outdoors is preferable. Vegetables can be used to make fresh salads.
- Cascade and Mig
These two varieties of cucumbers have similar characteristics. It can be grown both in the beds and in greenhouse conditions. The yield is high, from 7 to 15 kg of fruits can be harvested from 1 square meter. The shape of the cucumbers is elongated, cylindrical. Periodically, the bushes need mineral and organic fertilizers. Used for summer salads and salting.
- Claudia F1
First generation hybrid. In Siberia, cucumbers are planted in the open field. Plants are self-pollinating. The yield can reach up to 26 kg from several bushes. There is no bitterness in the taste, the vegetables are covered with small tubercles. Ripe cucumbers can be put in salads and salted.
- Herman F1
It is also a first generation hybrid. Like Claudia, it belongs to self-pollinated varieties that are suitable for growing in Siberia. Due to this, the yield is high. It belongs to the early varieties. Herman's main advantage is resistance to many "cucumber" diseases. Seedlings are planted in May. Cucumbers are canned whole and added to salads.
- Pallas' cat
Cucumbers of domestic selection. Fruits are elongated, in length can reach 25 cm. Ripening begins 70 -80 days after planting the seeds, inflorescences can only be pollinated by bees. Very productive. The bushes themselves are female plants; pollinating varieties will have to be planted.
- Miranda F1
The main advantage of this variety of cucumbers is resistance to frost and powdery mildew. Cucumbers can be grown on any soil, but the best harvest can be obtained by planting seedlings on fertile soil.
What are the best yielding varieties?
The most productive varieties of cucumbers:
- Apogee F1;
- Chestplate F1.
You can cultivate these varieties of cucumbers in a greenhouse or in the open field.
When to plant cucumbers in Siberia
For planting in the Siberian climate, it is important to choose the right timing for planting cucumber seedlings. Summer is much shorter here compared to the southern regions. When to sow seeds for seedlings and how to choose planting dates for 2018?
In a heated polycarbonate greenhouse, you can sow cucumber seeds in April. The most favorable time is mid-April. For open field cultivation in Krasnoyarsk, it is better to choose the beginning of May.
Cultivation of cucumbers in a greenhouse and a greenhouse in Siberia
How to grow cucumbers in the difficult climatic conditions of Siberia? Not every gardener can afford to build a greenhouse, so you have to come up with ways to grow cucumbers in the open field. First of all, you need to know the features of the cultivation of this agricultural crop.
Features of growing cucumbers:
- Until the air temperature drops to +15 degrees, the plant will actively grow and develop. As soon as the average daily temperature becomes lower, the growth stops.
- The roots are the most susceptible to cold snap and frost, so you need to think about mulch after the seedlings have been planted.
- Seedlings and adult plants should be regularly fed with mineral and organic fertilizers..
- Plants can form knots. Both female and male inflorescences, antennae, lateral whip and leaf can form in them at the same time. If the humidity level rises, then a separate plant can form from such a node.
- If the soil acidity level is below pH 5.6, then this can negatively affect the health of vegetables. Loamy soils are also not suitable for planting. They prevent the root system from developing normally, which in turn leads to poor absorption of water by the roots.
The soil for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse must be prepared in advance. For this, a special pillow is made, which consists of manure and straw. The manure and straw are mixed, the soil is poured, and then another layer of soil is poured. Only then can the seedlings be planted in the soil.
It is impossible to grow plants in the same place for several years in a row. If the greenhouse is small, then you will have to change the location of the cucumber beds every year. If this is not done, the soil will be depleted and the yield of cucumbers will be low.
Planting cucumbers in the greenhouse takes place mainly in a vertical way. To do this, metal or wooden beams are attached to the ceiling of the greenhouse, strong threads or a special mesh are tied to them, which are fixed on the beams located in the ground.
Each plant should have its own support. So the bushes will not interfere with each other and grow normally. If the mustache clings to adjacent supports, then they must be carefully removed and sent to their place.
To grow cucumbers, they must be disinfected before planting seeds in open ground. To do this, dilute potassium permanganate in warm water, pour the planting material there and leave it in water for 20 minutes. Then dry to a free-flowing state and plant in the soil.
Growing cucumbers in a polycarbonate greenhouse can not do without controlling the level of humidity and air temperature in the greenhouse. The temperature should not be less than +15, but not more than +24. If vegetables are grown in the warm season, then the greenhouse needs to periodically open the window.
It is recommended to water the cucumbers often, but they cannot be poured. If the humidity is too high, they can get sick with powdery mildew and rot.
In order to get the most delicious fruits from cucumbers, the bushes should be fertilized regularly. The soil is sprinkled with wood ash, compost. You can also dilute bird droppings and nettle decoction and pour this solution over the beds.
Open field cultivation of cucumbers in Siberia
How to plant cucumbers for open ground in Siberia? Sowing must be approached responsibly. Before planting seedlings, you should prepare the ground for this. You can start preparing in the fall, immediately after harvesting from the site.
After the last crop of cucumbers from the beds has been harvested, the soil must be cleared of weeds and dug up. Apply manure to the soil and dig up again. In the spring, dig up the soil again, sprinkle it with wood ash.
Then you can plant the seedlings in the soil. Make beds, then dig shallow holes. Plant seedlings and bury them with soil. You do not need to deepen the seedlings. Drizzle with warm water. At night, the beds with seedlings are covered with a thick cloth.
It is possible to plant seedlings in the ground only after the nights become warm and there will be no frosts. As a rule, this is the end of May - beginning of June. When the plants begin to grow, you will need to form a bush. To do this, pinch the main stem over 5-6 leaves. This only applies to bee-pollinated varieties.
Cucumber care in Siberia
With good care, the yield can be increased significantly. Care should be regular and include:
- Loosening the soil;
- Weed removal;
- Application of mineral and organic fertilizers;
- Disease prevention;
- Inspection of the bushes for the presence of harmful insects and diseases.
Top dressing is the most important thing to remember. The first feeding is done a few weeks after planting in a permanent place.
Further, top dressing in the beds with cucumbers is applied every 10 days to moist soil. Cucumbers belong to those types of crops in which the growth of deciduous mass, the formation of inflorescences and fruits occurs simultaneously throughout the season. Therefore, throughout the growing season, cucumbers need nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
The following nutrient compositions can be used as fertilizer:
- Dissolve 1 kg of mullein in 10 liters of warm water. Insist the solution for 10 minutes. And then pour them on the beds with cucumbers.
- Dilute chicken manure also in water (in a ratio of 1:10).
- Collect the weeds that grow on the site, fill them with warm water. Insist 10 hours. Then pour the cucumbers under the root.
- Periodically, before watering, the beds can be sprinkled with wood ash. You can also sprinkle the cucumbers themselves with ashes.
- Also, ready-made mineral mixtures can be used as fertilizers. You can purchase special mixtures for fertilizing cucumbers.
They can be alternated.
An important factor is also prevention against diseases and pests. You need to inspect cucumbers every week. If yellow leaves appear, then they must be immediately cut off and destroyed, and the plants themselves should be watered with Fitosporin. You can process the bushes with a solution of iodine or brilliant green. For 1 liter of water, you need to take a bottle of iodine and pour this solution over the beds with cucumbers.
In order to scare off pests, vegetables are sprayed with a solution of ammonia and warm water. The ammonia will also promote nitrogen production. They can also be sprayed with a decoction of valerian root. Most insects do not tolerate the smell of valerian.
Watering the beds with cucumbers should be often, but in moderation. Plants love moist, but not flooded soil. If there are prolonged rains for a long time, then watering should be postponed until then. Until the soil is completely dry. If the soil moisture is too high, the cucumbers may become sore.
Reviews of gardeners about growing cucumbers in Siberia
Reviews from gardeners:
Veronica, 33 years old
“I live in Krasnoyarsk, it is very difficult to grow cucumbers in the summer, especially if there is no greenhouse. I try with all my might to provide favorable conditions for the harvest. But it does not always work out ”.
Constantine, 45 years old
“I have been growing cucumbers in the open field for several years. Sometimes it turned out to get a good harvest, and sometimes not. Over time, I decided that the best option would be to build a greenhouse for growing cucumbers. Plants are grown mainly in the summer, but in a greenhouse. Now I am pleased with the harvest. "