A cow's ovarian cyst is one of the most common diseases that can lead to infertility of the animal. It is cystosis that becomes the main cause of economic losses in the economy. Cysts can appear in one or both ovaries. Treatment of a luteal cyst in cows can be costly, so the disease is easier to prevent.
The appearance of the disease
An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled cavity that forms at the site of an undeveloped follicle. A cyst can occur at the very beginning of the hunt, when the body is preparing for ovulation, but it does not occur. Then the follicle overflows with fluid and grows, increasing in size and disrupting the normal reproductive cycle.
The most common causes of luteal cysts are hormonal disorders caused by endocrine diseases - especially the hypothalamic-pituitary complex. Often, neoplasms appear after the uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs or their analogues.
Factors contributing to the disease may be insufficient or unbalanced feeding, lack of essential minerals, a sharp decrease in animal weight, or inflammation in the uterus or ovary. It has been proven that genetic factors and predisposition may be involved in the appearance of a cyst.
The corpus luteum is a temporary gland that forms at the site of a ruptured follicle. It is this that produces the female sex hormone - progesterone, which is responsible for the normal course of the cow's sexual cycle, hunting and pregnancy. With any pathology of development, the follicle tends to degenerate into a malignant cyst filled with yellow or white liquid. Luteal cysts should be distinguished from other non-functional ovarian masses. A cyst often appears in the left ovary than in the right, but it can develop in two organs at once.
An ovarian cyst is difficult to diagnose in the early stages without an ultrasound examination due to the absence of visible symptoms. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out a prophylactic rectal examination of cows that irregularly come into heat, every 6-7 days.
Of the general symptoms, deterioration in the quality of milk, its taste characteristics, changes in color and consistency can be distinguished. Small globules of fat can be seen in the liquid. Pits are formed between the tail of the animal and the ischial depressions of the pelvis. The cow completely loses interest in the bull, or, conversely, is overly active.
How is the disease diagnosed?
A cyst at a late stage is quite well palpable through the rectum, but it can be confused with other formations due to the subjectivity of sensations. Ultrasound scanning is considered a much more reliable research method. Additionally, milk is analyzed. If an increased content of progesterone is found in the fluid, this is a reason to think about the presence of neoplasms in the ovary.
Cattle treatment methods
Before treating an animal, you need to try to balance the diet, otherwise the pathology will return again after an indefinite time. For this, pulp and other fatty concentrates are excluded from the nutrition of the herd, more vitamins, fruits and vegetables are added. In summer - a lot of green food. Sick cows are isolated in clean stalls with plenty of bedding, which is cleaned and disinfected every day. The temperature in the barn is at least 7 degrees Celsius.
With follicular formation in the blood, the concentration of estrogen sharply increases. Most often, drug treatment is used, especially if the disease has not gone too far.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
For this, a course of hormonal drugs is prescribed in conjunction with fatty acids, which increase the likelihood of hunting. They are also prescribed after surgery.
"Luteostenol" acts gradually, so it is impossible to inject several portions of the drug at once. The average course of treatment is 7-14 days. Possesses biological activity and temporarily stimulates the production of sex hormones. The first signs of hunting in a cow will appear within a few days after the first injection of the drug.
All of the above drugs can be administered to cows only after prior consultation with a veterinarian and after an accurate diagnosis. The wrong treatment can only aggravate the situation, and the farmer risks losing most of the livestock.
Since the beginning of the 2010s, hormonal drugs such as Gonadorelin, Surfagon and Estrofan have been used in the treatment of luteal cysts, which promote the resorption of luteal tissue and the onset of sexual heat within 21-30 days.
All drugs are based on natural hormones, so they do not cause rejection by the body or an allergic reaction.
Can be used for cows of any age. Before prescribing any medication, you should consult a doctor, because the symptoms of a cyst can easily be confused with metritis, mastitis and other disorders in the body.
Cattle luteal cysts cause enormous economic damage to the economy. It is much easier and cheaper to prevent the onset of the disease than to cure it. To do this, the livestock is provided with the correct conditions for keeping - a warm and clean barn, regular walking and green fodder in the summer.
Do not give too much fatty feed, such as cake. It is better for a livestock technician or other farm worker to compose a ration individually for each cow. Animals that are prone to ovarian degeneration are not allowed to breeding, and the resulting young are sold for milk production or for meat.