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Nectarine is classified as a peach species. But this type of fruit culture is more unpretentious, capable of bearing fruit in a temperate climate. Many gardeners are interested in how to grow nectarine from a stone and whether it is possible to get a positive result in breeding a fruit tree in this way.
Is it possible to grow nectarine from a seed
Before you start growing nectarine from the seed at home, you need to determine whether a fruit tree can develop in a particular region, whether there are suitable conditions for this. Although the crop is cold-resistant, severe frosts in winter can damage the tree. It will take a long time to recover and will not be able to fully bear fruit.
Stone fruits are often grown from seed. And nectarine is no exception. Here it is necessary to approach carefully to the selection of seed material. Not all seeds are suitable for plant propagation. Store-bought fruits do not reach full ripeness when they are removed from the branches. Therefore, you should not take a bone for reproduction from them. Use the material that is grown in a garden located in the same region.
How to choose a variety for growing
Usually fruit trees are planted by purchasing seedlings. For the propagation of nectarine by seeds, choose a fruit variety that quickly adapts to the proposed climatic conditions. Patiently engaging in seed germination, caring for the sprouts, after a few years they get a fruiting tree. But in order to achieve this, attention is paid to such nectarine varieties that are adapted to the growing conditions.
The material taken from the fruits cultivated in Turkey and Italy will not take root in Russia. It is better to take a bone for nectarine propagation from hybrids bred by breeders of the Crimea:
- The Krymchanin variety is known for its frost resistance, unpretentiousness. A medium-sized tree can produce up to 50 kilograms of tasty, unpeeled yellow peaches with a pink blush. The weight of one nectarine reaches 200 grams.
- The hardy and high-yielding nectarine Crimson Gold ripens early. Rounded fruits are covered with a thin yellowish skin with ruddy stripes. Their flesh is tender, juicy, of medium fiber.
- The compact tree of the Kolonovidny variety is fertile. Suitable for growing in small areas.
- Kiev nectarine can be cultivated in temperate regions. The tree grows up to 4 meters. The fruits are harvested in early July.
- The Nikitsky 85 hybrid has a height of 2 meters. A tree with a rounded crown will decorate the site and bear many fruits. The nectarines of the variety are sweet, with tender pulp, easily separated by a bone.
The seeds from these varieties of fruit will allow a new plant to appear in the garden.
Cultivation of culture
Planting nectarine on the site begins with preparatory work. The vegetation of the plant depends on how they are carried out.
Requirements for the choice of planting material
The collected fruits of nectarine for planting should be overripe. Pay attention to the pulp. The material is suitable that does not have damage, rot. Peaches that are infected with pathogenic fungi and viruses cannot be used for breeding. The bone inside must be whole, of even color. It is washed several times to remove the remaining pulp from the grooves on the shell surface.
Preparing seeds for planting
Separating the seed from the seed requires care. First, the bones are poured with warm water, leaving for several days. The water needs to be changed regularly. Then drying begins. The material is laid out on a tray, placed in a well-ventilated and bright room.
You can determine the readiness of the seed by cracking the nut. Better to put the bone on the edge and hit with something heavy. The core of the nectarine must not be damaged during the operation.
When planning to plant immediately in the ground in the fall, then you do not need to soak the seeds. For the spring procedure, planting material is stored in a box, excluding its damage. In February, soak nectarine seeds in plenty of water. Then they are placed in a plastic bag with damp moss or sawdust and sent to the refrigerator.
Technology of planting nectarine in the ground
In the technology of planting nectarine in the spring, attention should be paid to seed germination. There are several ways.
The cold method is used as follows:
- The seeds are embedded in nutritious and moist soil to a depth of 6-8 centimeters, filling a pot with them.
- Send the container to a cold place.
- Observe the moisture content of the soil, excluding its drying out.
- The sprouts will appear in 4 months, then they can be planted in the ground.
Nectarine seedlings must be provided with the same conditions as indoors. They will not survive sudden changes in temperature. It is better to gradually raise the air temperature by exposing the pots to the windowsill and then to the open air.
Another method is fast. Seeds placed in the refrigerator are planted in pots with nutritious soil after 2 days. Cover with foil or glass jar on top. Every day the plantings are aired, moistened as needed.
The reward for diligence will be a sprout with roots and leaves in 3-4 months. Seedlings are transplanted when the threat of frost has passed. Nectarine requires a lit area with neutral soil acidity.
Pits are prepared for the plant in advance, up to 0.5 meters deep, 60-70 centimeters wide. They add humus, superphosphate mixed with earth. The seedling is placed in the center of the hole, sprinkling the roots, shaking regularly. Then the trunk circle is compacted and watered.
Peach sprout care
During the year, you can turn a nectarine seedling into a tree up to 1 meter high. For this, he needs appropriate conditions for the growing season.
The soil for the nectarine must be fertile. If the soils are scarce, then it is necessary to feed the trees with humus, complex fertilizers with an optimal content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. From the second year of life, it is necessary to close up 4-5 kilograms of humus per 1 square meter of garden in early spring. You can water the area of the near-trunk circle with a solution of mullein in a ratio of 1: 6 or bird droppings - 1:12. For a bucket of water, 30 grams of superphosphate is enough, 10-15 grams each of potassium salt and ammonium nitrate.
If the acidity of the soil is high, then fluff lime or dolomite flour is added.
As a plant of the south, nectarine loves warmth. Temperature drops are contraindicated for him. If there is a sharp cold snap, then it is better to bring a pot with a tree into the house. It is possible to plant nectarine in the greenhouse in areas where it is summer with unstable weather. For plants with early ripening, spring frosts are dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to consider protecting the garden from the effects of cold. Smoke heaps spread between the rows of fruit trees are being saved. They are set on fire when the air drops to minus 2 degrees.
Nectarine will bear fruit only in good lighting. A short summer is not for these fruits. It is necessary that the plantings be illuminated by the sun for more than 12 hours. Then the fruits will be large and sweet.
The peach variety loves moisture. But it must be given in the norm. As soon as the topsoil begins to dry out, the plantings are watered. To do this, use the grooves laid between the rows of fruit trees. Pour 3-4 buckets of water per running meter of the trench.
The area of the trunk circle is also irrigated. Each tree needs 1-2 buckets of water.
Diseases, pests and possible difficulties in growing
Gardeners who decide to grow nectarine in their summer cottage should be prepared for various difficulties:
- The culture prefers a warm climate. Therefore, if the winter is cold, below 20 degrees of frost, then it is necessary to cover the young tree especially carefully. Covering material is also suitable here. They use it in several layers.
- Fungal infections often affect the peach due to the increased humidity of the air and soil. It is better to prevent diseases by spraying plants with Bordeaux liquid. If signs of pathology are found, treatment with fungicides should be applied.
- Plant pests should be fought with folk remedies. A decoction of tobacco dust will help from aphids, a spider mite - an infusion of onion peels.
- Spraying with Ridomila or Tiovita solution strengthens the culture.
The peculiarity of nectarine is that the plant sheds its foliage late. When the early leaf fall began, then something is wrong with the tree.
How and when to replant a tree
If the summer cottage is located in areas with late early spring, then it is better to first grow nectarine in a tub at home. In the summer, the plant is taken out into the open air. Then, with a closed root system, the tree is easier to transplant. It is worth carrying out the procedure in the second half of summer so that the plant has time to get used to the new conditions of detention.
Before planting, carefully pull the seedling out of the tub or pot, trying to keep a clod of earth on the roots. A hole is dug up to 70 centimeters wide and 60 centimeters deep. Holding a peach tree with one hand, fill the hole with nutritious soil. In this case, the root collar should be at ground level. After watering, pay attention to the level of the neck, bringing it to the correct position.
After abundant watering, it is necessary to mulch the soil around the fruit tree. So moisture will be preserved, there will be no weeds.
If all the rules for growing nectarine from a stone are observed, then in the 5-6th year you can harvest the first harvest of fruits.