Sea buckthorn is a healthy berry. In nature, it is difficult to collect because of the thorns. Cultivated varieties almost do not have them, the best approach to fruits. All this, thanks to the pruning of the garden sea buckthorn. Plant care begins from the first year in life. Gardeners are making amazing transformations. They transform sea buckthorn into shrubs, low-growing trees with horizontal branches. They use formative, rejuvenating, restorative, sanitary pruning.
Goals and objectives of pruning sea buckthorn
There are several types of pruning, and each has a specific purpose.
- Shaping - the crown of a tree or shrub is shaped. This method is responsible for decorativeness.
- Sanitary - prevents diseases, frees the crown from unnecessary elements.
- Rejuvenating - increases productivity by replacing old branches with new ones.
- Restorative - a neglected, damaged crown is reduced to perfection.
- Regulating - gives an influx of air, sun.
The choice of a specific task affects how the shoot is removed. There are only two options: "on the ring" or shortening the branches in order to transfer to the shoot or bud.
- Limit the height of the trunk, direct the shoot in the other direction - shorten the crown, cut the branch above the shoot or bud at an angle.
- Make a branch grow faster or slower - use the ringing method. A strip of bark is cut above the kidney for rapid growth, underneath it is inhibition.
- Making a young tree bear fruit is a ringing method. Cut the bark 1 centimeter wide near the base of the trunk.
- Remove old branches - remove shoots “on the ring” in the place where they branch off.
- Increase the growth of lateral branches - pinch the crown a month before the end of the growing season.
When to prune a tree
Experienced gardeners will prune the tree at any time, but there are some limitations. In the northern regions, it is undesirable to carry out manipulations with wood in the fall, except for sanitization. Cuts, cuts do not have time to tighten. The procedure is carried out after leaf fall.
The shaping, rejuvenating procedure is best done in the spring. The plant should be dormant. Regulatory pruning is done in summer. At this time, fruiting, dry, unnecessary branches are clearly visible.
What tools will be needed
Prepare two types of secateurs. Choose one of them small, with sharp ends, for processing thin branches. The second pruner is needed powerful, with long handles - for thick branches.
- A hacksaw is required to cut large trunks.
- For tall shoots, you will need a lopper.
- Garden knife.
Treat all tools with copper sulfate.
Schemes and technology
The correct technology depends on which pruning scheme is chosen.
Throughout its life, sea buckthorn forms its crown. Depending on what you want to get in the end - a shrub or a tree. This has no effect on fruiting. The main choice here is decorativeness. Up to three years old, sea buckthorn grows as an unbranched shoot. Then whorls appear. Their tops should be pinched.
Female specimens stretch up to 1.3 meters, male ones - up to 5. The branches of female trees growing up are tied up and pulled down. Horizontally growing shoots, on the contrary, are lifted up on props. Thus, the plant is strengthened. Males are given a pyramidal crown. Branches growing inward and rubbing against each other are removed after leaf fall or in spring. To limit growth, the crown is trimmed.
Formative pruning is carried out in the spring. The crown is formed within 4-5 years.
- 1 year. The seedling grows up randomly.
- 2 years. The stem bends parallel to the ground in spring. Five vertical shoots appear in the fall.
- 3 years. In the spring, turn the extreme shoot parallel to the ground. In the fall, there will be berries on 4 branches. On the opposite shoot, vertical shoots are formed. The fruiting branch is cut off along with the berries.
- For 4 years, one branch is again disconnected in the opposite direction. The procedure is repeated.
In the first year of life, a bush is formed from an ungrafted plant. 5 shoots are left, the rest are cut off. To do this, the root system is dug up and the shoot is cut off "on a ring", otherwise two will appear from one cut out growth. The tops are trimmed 25 centimeters from the ground. So that 4-5 buds remain on each branch. The next year, three powerful shoots are chosen, the rest of the shoots are cut down. In the third year, lateral shoots will appear on the branches. Leave those branches that are directed to the outside. Do not get carried away with strong pruning at the top, as the fruits are tied there. They will have berries on them in the fall.
If you have own-rooted sea buckthorn, then they form a bush from a skeletal branch and shoots coming from the root. The height of all shoots is up to 20 centimeters from the ground. Through the season, strong shoots are chosen for skeletal branches.
On the trunk
In the first year of life, a seedling leaves one strong shoot. Closely growing neighbors are removed. After a year, the trunk is pinched by 15 centimeters. Up to 5 buds are left in the upper part. The rest are to be removed or blinded.
Formation continues at 3 years of age. 5 shoots will appear from the buds. Each of them is shortened by equal lengths. The bottom of the trunk is cleaned of overgrowth. Tall varieties should be limited in growth by pinching the crown. In the future, it will be convenient to harvest without resorting to the stairs.
Rejuvenating pruning of mature shrubs that have reached 7 years of age helps to increase yields. Old branches that do not bear fruit must be replaced with lateral shoots. A powerful shoot is chosen, the main thing is that the direction is to the outside of the bush. In the process of rejuvenation, 1-3 old branches are replaced.
If tops are used, then they are tied with twine to the pegs. Every two weeks, the slope is increased to the horizontal side. Rejuvenation is carried out by shoots, when a young tree is planted in the old place. Sea buckthorn is cut off at the root when shoots appear; leave the strongest.
Broken, dry twigs are removed. The tree is examined for disease. If there are infected places, they are removed from the tree. They do not leave garbage near the trees, they must burn them.
Is it possible to cut the branches of sea buckthorn when picking berries
The branches are pruned together with the fruits if they are to be pruned in the fall. Young branches should not be touched. The tree will stop bearing fruit.
Tree care after the procedure
Sea buckthorn, after spring or autumn pruning, does not require special attention. It is necessary to carefully process the sections, feed and mulch the plant. If there is no rain, then water it.
Slices up to 1 centimeter in diameter are not processed. Large cuts are treated with garden pitch in spring. In autumn, oil paint is used.
The seedling needs organic fertilization during planting. After the seedling is planted, the ground is mulched. Organic loose materials are used as mulch. The procedure retains moisture and protects against weeds.
After the soil has received sufficient nourishment during planting, fertilization will be required in the third year of life.
In early spring, ammonium nitrate is poured into the trunk circle and sprinkled with earth. Adult shrubs need phosphorus and potassium during the formation of ovaries. Before flowering, foliar dressing is applied - Potassium humate. Dosage: for 10 liters of water, one tablespoon of the drug. After leaf fall, the plants are fed with mineral fertilizers.
Common pruning mistakes
For novice gardeners, it is not uncommon to make a number of mistakes when pruning sea buckthorn:
- Leave the branches on the tree going inward. The green crown does not receive enough light, the humidity regime is disturbed, the fruits become smaller. These disadvantages provoke the occurrence of infectious diseases.
- Side shoots are strongly pruned. But in the upper part, generative buds are formed, which are responsible for the harvest.
- Do not process large cuts, cuts. The plant may die. In autumn, a diameter of more than 1 centimeter is smeared with oil paint. In the spring, garden var is used.
- Leave the hemp. Subsequently, they become overgrown with tops that do not bear fruit. Remove the branch under the ring.
- When harvesting, young shoots are cut off. This threatens the death of subsequent harvests.
- Use a blunt instrument. As a result, the saw tears, the pruner grinds the bark.
- Ignore cropping. The plant gets sick from lack of light, gives small fruits.