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When and how to plant hyacinths in open ground, rules of care and cultivation

When and how to plant hyacinths in open ground, rules of care and cultivation



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Hyacinths are early spring flowers, planting and caring for them outdoors requires adherence to certain rules. This bulbous culture is planted annually in the fall, before the onset of cold weather. Hyacinths bloom in April. In summer, the bulbs are removed from the ground and dried in a hot and dry room. In the fall, they are again buried in the ground, and this is repeated every season.

Features and characteristics of the bulbous flower

Hyacinth is a bulbous perennial crop from the Asparagus family. The most famous types are Litvinov, Transcaspian and Eastern. They grow in Mediterranean countries and in southern latitudes. Oriental hyacinth has been cultivated since the 15th century. More than a thousand different varieties have evolved from this species. Holland is considered the world center for the cultivation of the bulbous plant. This country has ideal conditions for the development of hyacinth bulbs.

The hyacinth has an erect, thick stem, up to 14-35 centimeters high, and has long, narrow, pointed leaves at the tip. At the top of the shoot, bell-shaped flowers (up to 36 pieces) are collected in a carpal inflorescence. Hyacinth inflorescence is snow-white, blue, yellow, crimson, blue, lilac. Flowers can be double or simple. Leaves and stem emerge from the bulb. The bulb is perennial, dense, consists of fleshy grassy leaves.

Hyacinth blooms in early spring (about two weeks). Pollinated by insects. Instead of a flower, a fruit is formed with seeds inside. After flowering, the stem with leaves dries up, and a bud appears inside the old bulb, which blooms in spring. In addition to the inner bud, tiny children appear near the bottom of the bulb and in the axils of the bulbous scales. Grown up babies can be separated and raised separately. True, they will bloom only after 3-4 years.

After flowering, the bulbs are dug up. Before autumn, they must be thoroughly dried in a hot room. In October, the bulbs are buried again. One and the same bulb can throw out a new peduncle in the spring for 10 years. True, it is recommended to constantly change the landing site.

Popular varieties of hyacinth

There is a huge variety of hyacinths. They differ, as a rule, in the color of the inflorescences and the shape of the flowers. All plants reproduce by bulbs.

When buying, it is recommended to look at the size of the bulbs. Adult bulbs can be 4-6 centimeters in diameter. They are even smaller in double and yellow garden varieties.

Lilac and purple

In their natural form, hyacinth inflorescences have a lilac color with a purple tint and small bell-shaped simple flowers. Thanks to the efforts of botanists, new varieties of these plants have appeared. For example, Manhattan - with deep purple double flowers; Menelik - in the inflorescence there can be up to 35 dark lilac flowers with a light border; Royal Novi - on one brush - up to 45 large double purple flowers.

Blue

The Peter Stevenson variety is the bluest hyacinth with a height of 25 centimeters. It has numerous, double, large, bell-shaped flowers.

General Kohler is a hyacinth with pale blue double flowers. In the middle of each petal there is a dark strip, which gradually fades as it blooms. Flowers are large (up to 4.1 centimeters in diameter), with a sweetish aroma.

Pink

Anna Marie - up to 26 centimeters high. Has a loose inflorescence, consisting of numerous pink star-shaped flowers.

Pink Pearl - the inflorescence is densely covered with pink, with a dark line on the petals, star-shaped flowers. This early flowering variety has the appearance of a lush cone.

Yellow and orange

City of Haarlem is a straw-colored variety with large flowers. The height of the culture is up to 32 centimeters.

Orange Bowen is an apricot hyacinth with drooping flowers on long stalks. The height of the culture is up to 20 centimeters.

Red

Jan Bos - cylindrical, lush raspberry-colored inflorescence. Flowers are small (up to 3 centimeters) with a light center.

La Victoire is a lush hyacinth with a rich crimson inflorescence. One brush contains up to 55 flowers up to 2.9 centimeters in diameter.

What conditions are necessary for the growth and flowering of a culture

Before planting an onion, you need to find a suitable place for it. In the country, flowers are usually planted near a hedge, near a house or in the middle of a lawn - on a flower bed. The main thing is to place hyacinths away from shrubs and trees so that they do not shade the culture and do not take nutrients from the flowers. For the cultivation of hyacinths, certain conditions must be created.

Illumination of the landing site

The crop prefers to grow in the sun or in a well-lit garden area. It is advisable to place the flower bed in a place protected from the winds. Hyacinths can be planted on a hill or knoll so that when the snow or rain melts, water does not accumulate near the bulb, but flows down.

Temperature regime

Bulbs "hatch" at a temperature of 5-10 degrees Celsius. They bloom in April-May, when the air warms up to 15-20 degrees. By the end of June, hyacinth inflorescences have time to bloom, and their leaves turn yellow. In July, the shoots are cut off, and the bulbs are dug up. After digging up, the natural process of forming a new inflorescence begins. To do this, the bulbs need to be provided with a heat of 25 degrees. It is desirable to maintain this temperature for 2 months. 1-2 weeks before planting, the bulbs can be transferred outside.

In October, the bulbs are buried in the ground, where they will stay all winter (at subzero temperatures). In the spring, after the snow melts, hyacinths will sprout and bloom.

Humidity

The culture prefers moderately moist soils. In very swampy soil, the bulbs begin to rot. Groundwater can occur at a distance of at least 55 centimeters from the surface. Reduce soil moisture by means of drainage or high embankments-ridges.

Soil composition

The culture prefers loam or sandy loam soils of neutral acidity. Too clayey soil can be diluted with peat or sand. The land should be permeable and moderately fertilized. It is undesirable to use too fresh manure. You can fertilize the soil with rotted humus 2 months before planting. Hyacinths don't like sour soil. To normalize acidity, a little lime or ash is added to the soil. The optimal composition of the soil: garden (sod or leaf) soil, compost, peat, sand.

The subtleties of planting a plant in open ground

After flowering, hyacinths are kept in a flower bed until July, then the bulbs are dug up and dried for 2-3 months, and in October they are again planted in the pits. You can plant plants in a flower bed in spring.

Timing

Bulbs are planted at the end of September or at the very beginning of October. If you plant hyacinths a little earlier, they will begin to grow in the warmth, and then they will die in the frost. When the bulbs are planted in November, they do not have time to take root until the soil freezes.

Spring

In spring, hyacinth bulbs are planted only if, for some reason, it was not possible to plant them in the fall. They are pre-dried at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius for two months, then they are kept in the refrigerator on a vegetable shelf for a whole week. When the snow melts and the soil warms up to 5-8 degrees Celsius, hyacinth bulbs are planted in a flower bed. Planting is carried out in April. Pre-dig and fertilize the soil. Before planting, hyacinth bulbs must be irrigated with a fungicide to protect them from fungi.

Autumn

The bulbs are planted at the end of September or in October, that is, long before the onset of frost. It is recommended to plant hyacinths before November. Before frost, plantings are insulated. Peat and humus, dry leaves, sawdust or spruce branches are taken as mulch. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, the mulch is removed, because the sprouts of hyacinths "hatch" early.

Bulb planting technology and depth

The flowerbed is prepared in August. They dig up the earth, bring in a little humus (half a bucket per one square meter). Too clay soil is diluted with peat and sand, enriched with phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Nitrogen supplements are applied in the spring during feeding.

Hyacinths are planted in holes to a depth of 16-20 centimeters. There should be a distance of 16-25 centimeters to the neighboring flower. Small children bury it shallowly. It is recommended to pour some river sand on the bottom of the hole before planting. The bulb is immersed in the hole and pressed slightly. Sprinkle sand on top again, and only then cover the hole with earth. This method will save the bulb from infections and decay. After planting, the soil is irrigated with water, and a peg is inserted next to it for a reference point.

Flower care

After planting, the crop must be properly cared for. The main thing is not to allow the soil to dry out too much and to make top dressing on time.

Watering

If it rarely rains, and the ground in the flowerbed is very dry, the hyacinths can be watered. 7-10 liters of water are consumed per square meter of land. Flowers are watered once every 3-4 days. It is recommended to loosen moistened soil. After flowering, watering is continued for another 2 weeks, then it is stopped and the plant is allowed to dry out.

Top dressing

Hyacinths are fed twice. The first time the plants are fertilized in early spring, as soon as the first shoots appear. Ammonium nitrate is added to the ground. The second dressing is done before flowering. The soil is fertilized with superphosphate and potassium sulfate. Take one tablespoon of fertilizer per square meter of land. Top dressing is scattered over the surface, lightly sprinkled with earth and irrigated with water.

Transfer

Often, hyacinths are bought in the spring at the time of flowering. The flowering plant is usually left untouched. True, if the hyacinth is left in a cramped pot, then its bulb will not accumulate nutrients. It is advisable to transplant the flower to the flower bed. Before transplanting, the soil in the pot is moistened, and the plant, along with an earthen clod, is moved into the dug hole.

It is necessary to transplant hyacinth very carefully so as not to damage the roots. The procedure is best done in May, when the air warms up to 15 degrees. In July, the dried stem must be cut off, and the onion must be dug up and dried.

Diseases and pests: control and prevention

If hyacinths are improperly taken care of - do not weed, do not apply top dressing or plant flowers on too clayey or acidic soil, they can get sick. Most often, this bulbous culture is subject to fungal infections. The disease can be provoked by rainy weather and too humid habitat.

Hyacinths will not get sick if they grow on fertile and moderately moist soil. Before planting, onions, as a preventive measure, must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, fungicide or a preparation containing phosphorus. Bulbs can develop bacterial rot. Treatment of the soil before planting with 5% formalin or bleach saves from this infection.

Sometimes hyacinths drop inflorescences. This is not a disease, but a physiological feature caused by strong root pressure. A similar phenomenon may be the result of improper care. The loss of inflorescences provokes an excess of moisture in the soil, early planting of bulbs, drying of planting material at insufficiently high temperatures.

Hyacinths are often attacked by insects. Suffer from aphids, bears, flower flies, thrips, onion mites. Spraying with insecticides (Aktara, Medvetoks, Fitoverm) is saved from pests.

How to care for hyacinth after flowering

Some gardeners practice removing flowers from a peduncle while still in the stage of colored buds. The green arrow is retained, and it continues to function as an additional sheet. This technique helps to increase the mass of the young bulb, it accumulates more nutrients for the formation of a peduncle for the next season. Adult plants are allowed to bloom naturally.

Pruning

Hyacinths are pruned after flowering, when the stem and leaves turn yellow and dry. Then the bulbs are dug out of the ground. If they are not dug up and dried, hyacinths will bloom much worse next spring. Bulbs are removed from the ground in early July. Then they are cleaned, washed, carefully examined, and sore spots are treated. The bulbs are dried, the grown children are separated, sprayed with a fungicide. Store in a warm room at a temperature of 22-25 degrees Celsius until autumn. In October, they are taken out into the street for 1-2 weeks, and then buried in the ground.

We take care of in winter

The bulbs planted in the fall are covered with a thick layer of mulch before wintering. The surface is mulched with dry leaves, sawdust, peat with humus, spruce branches. The thickness of the mulch should be 20 centimeters. In winter, snow is constantly poured onto the flowerbed where the bulbs are planted.

Hyacinth breeding methods

Hyacinths can be propagated with bulbs, children. The seed method is used only by breeders. Flowers obtained from seeds do not repeat the varietal characteristics of the parents. Such plants bloom only after 5-7 years.

In practice, hyacinths are propagated by children. An adult bulb forms from 1 to 5 babies every year. For a while, they are not separated from the mother's bulb. When the children grow up a little, they are broken off and grown separately for another three years.

Cutting out the bottom is another breeding method. The onion is dug in the summer, dried, and then cut out the bottom with a teaspoon. On the cuts, after 2 months, new bulbs appear (up to 22-40 pieces). They will bloom only after 3-4 years..

The bulbs can be propagated by cutting the bottom. For this, a cruciform incision is made at the very bottom. After 2 months, up to 15 children will appear. Before they bloom, they are grown for two whole years.


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