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Farms for breeding cows are popular today. This is a profitable event, however, before starting construction, you need to carefully think over the smallest details of construction, find out the requirements for the barn, and draw up a project. A properly equipped farm will increase the productivity of the animals and allow the owner to run a business.
Cow breeding business plan
For a full-fledged farming, you need to take into account a number of issues that relate to finances and organizational issues. Drawing up a business plan will help to clearly structure the construction. Planning should include:
- method of financing;
- purchase of a plot of land for a farm and the required livestock;
- materials, equipment and connection of communications;
- utility bills or rent;
- staff salaries;
- feed, vitamin supplements, veterinary drugs;
- design and planning costs;
- payback period;
- projected net income.
If the plans are to build a large farm, then it is necessary to include in this list the costs of advertising and arrangement of retail outlets.
Benefits and Benefits
With the desire and a well-designed plan, you can create your own cattle breeding business. Many start out with mini-farms for 5-10 heads. However, given how quickly the costs are recouped, budding farmers are expanding their business.
Automatic milking of cows
It is known that both meat and dairy products are in demand. Meals and milk are essential in any family. Wanting to produce and sell an exceptionally high-quality product, even a novice farmer quickly finds regular customers. Therefore, building a farm often becomes a successful business.
Where to get capital
Start-up capital is required to build a cattle farm. It often happens that there is not enough money to create a full-fledged farm. In this case, you need to think about where you can get additional funds.
When starting construction, you need to find out about possible subsidies from the state. Recently, the government has been providing comprehensive support to farmers.
In addition, you can take a loan from a bank or attract investors from outside. However, it is not easy to get money, so it is important to prepare in advance. In addition to drawing up a competent business plan, you need to find an opportunity to organize a presentation, to convince creditors of a quick payback of the future enterprise. It is also necessary to interest partners in an environmentally friendly product.
A bank loan can be obtained for a period of 5 years. For the amount received, a novice entrepreneur will be able to purchase equipment, machinery, building materials, livestock. It is possible to receive a subsidy for the creation of a farm in the amount of up to 3 million rubles, as well as for improving the living conditions of the owner (up to 250 thousand rubles).
Determination of direction
Milking machines for the dairy direction
A modern cow farm can have two main areas - meat or dairy. Each has its own specifics. The main requirement for a dairy farm is a large milking room. It should be borne in mind that the requirements for construction and arrangement are strict and regulated by standards. In addition, special equipment will be required for the collection and further transportation of the resulting products.
The meat direction is considered less expensive. The main task of the farmer is to competently approach the choice of heifers or bulls for further fattening. The meat farm does not require additional premises or special equipment. If the owner prioritizes quick profit, then the construction of a meat farm is recommended.
The profitability should be calculated based on the direction of the farm. If the farm is meat, then you can pre-calculate the feeding period and slaughter time. The beef breed peaks by 16 months. No earlier than six months or a year later, you can start slaughtering (the exact time depends on the age of the animal upon purchase). About 50% of live weight is sold for sale. To this can be added up to 15% of the weight of internal organs (offal). Next, you need to find out the average price of a kilogram of beef on the market and multiply it by the weight of the meat after slaughter.
As for the profit from the dairy farm, it must be taken into account that the cow will begin to milk in about 1.5-2 years. Therefore, it is important to select animals by age. Further, it should be noted that from one cow, on average, you can get up to 15 liters of milk daily and sell it wholesale or retail (prices differ by more than 2 times). So you can roughly calculate what income to expect from a cow per day.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Thus, the dairy business is considered the most profitable in terms of return on investment. However, milk is a perishable product, so it is important to establish uninterrupted distribution channels.
How to build a cattle farm
The decision to start building a farm must be balanced. At the very beginning, you will need to solve a number of questions:
- select a site and obtain a building permit;
- buy the necessary materials and tools for the construction;
- hire a team of builders;
- select staff to care for the livestock.
Before obtaining permission to build a farm, it is necessary to collect the necessary package of documents, which must include a plan of the architectural structure.
The location of the future farm plays an important role. The farm should be located at a distance of at least 300 m from residential buildings. It is advisable to foresee in advance the possibility of providing the economy with water supply.
There must be a pasture on the plot
Another nuance is the occurrence of groundwater. To avoid flooding or torrential flooding, their level should be 5-6 m from the ground. It is extremely important to select a plot of meadows for pasture. This will allow the herd to exercise daily, which increases productivity and has a positive effect on animal health. If there is a forest or grove nearby, then the livestock will be reliably protected from strong winds.
Preparation for construction
At the early stage of building a building with your own hands, you need to decide on the number of livestock, the size of the room, the way of keeping the herd, the direction of the farm, as well as the climatic features of the area. Based on this, you need to choose the type of barn and the type of construction.
Necessary materials and tools
You need to purchase tools:
- hammer, hammer-pickaxe;
- stapler and construction knife;
- concrete mixer;
- shovel shovel;
- electric drill;
- electric saw.
The tools are stored in a dry place, so it is advisable to build a canopy.
As for the materials, it must be understood that the animals will be kept in the barn all year round, so the structure must be capital.
Traditional materials that are often used to build a farm include:
- brick or blocks;
- various types of metal structures;
- sandwich panels.
The material must reliably protect from heat, but, at the same time, keep warm in winter.
There are established standards for breeding cattle. Based on them, one cow should have 5-6 m2... This must be taken into account when building a mini-farm, and when building a large farm for 100 or more heads, using a minimum of resources.
At the stage of drawing up a business plan, you should plan the number of goals. The size of the future building depends on this. The layout is important, which will largely depend on the direction of the farm.
You can cope with the construction of a barn for 20 or less heads on your own. Construction for 30 or more heads of cattle must be carried out with the help of a team.
After the completion of the main stages of construction, you need to start equipping the barn. A dairy farm requires a milking parlor, a storage room, and a separate room for calves. Consideration should be given to slightly sloping floors and a waste collection chute. You will need a ventilation system, heating for regions with a harsh climate, lighting, milking installations, as well as an automatic supply of water and feed.
The following equipment is required:
- drinkers and feeders;
- combers and brushes;
Every farm should have a stun gun to quickly calm the animal when needed. If the farm is large, then it makes sense to include automated devices in the project.
One of the conditions for increasing productivity is daily exercise. The owner needs to equip a walking area. It is important that the cows are able to consume green forage while walking.
The site should be securely fenced off. Place containers with fresh water on the territory. Care should be taken to build a shelter to protect the animals from the sun and rain.