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How many years do cows live on average at home and a table by years

How many years do cows live on average at home and a table by years


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Cows are kept and raised for milk and meat. For farm animals, it is productivity that determines how long they will live. Naturally, this period is much shorter than the biological one. How to find out how long a cow lives in a private household and on a production farm, on what its life expectancy depends and whether or not it can be increased.

What determines the life of a cow

Several factors affect cattle lifespan. Species, size, milk production are genetic factors that are laid down by nature and breeders. The rest - feeding, conditions of maintenance and care, state of health - depend, first of all, on the owner. If a cow is well looked after and fed, she can live longer than an animal that is kept in poor conditions.

The lifespan of livestock is influenced by climatic conditions; cattle are best suited to a temperate climate, with an average temperature of 10 ° C. Cows do not tolerate heat and humidity, drafts. In regions with a harsh climate and poor vegetation, livestock lives less.

What is the life expectancy of cattle

Since many factors affect how long a cow will live, you need to consider each of them separately.

By country

Not all countries where cows are kept live equally long. Life expectancy is influenced by the climate, the characteristics of the keeping of animals, the attitude of people towards them and how much milk and meat they want from livestock.

The countryLife span (years)
Russia10-12
USA15-20
Israel30
India35

India takes a leading position because cows are not raised there for meat, and they have the opportunity to live as long as nature intended for them. Of course, not every individual can live 35-40 years (species life expectancy of cattle), but many exceed the period that a cow can live on average.

Depending on the breed

All cattle breeds are divided into dairy, meat and meat and dairy. Animals from which they receive milk live as long as they can maintain milk yield at the required level. Beef cows live until they are big enough to be slaughtered. Breeding animals left for breeding live longer. Meat and dairy farms occupy the middle position, since they receive milk from them, but, if necessary, are sent for slaughter.

BreedHow many live (by years)
Dairy15
Meat3-5
Meat and dairy10-12

At home and on the farm

It is believed that cows that live at home in rural areas can live longer due to the fact that they are able to graze, move, breathe fresh air and receive portions of sunlight. If a cow is alone, she is given more attention than several, which also increases longevity.

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

In good conditions, an animal can live 15-17 years, which by human standards corresponds to old age. At the same time, it remains healthy and productive.

On production farms, cows are kept as long as they are profitable. As soon as milk yield begins to decline, or the female cannot bear calves, the animals are transferred to fattening and slaughtered. On average, they live up to 12 years, which corresponds to the average age.

Conditions of detentionLife span
In a private household15-17
On the farm7-12 (breeding bulls 5-10 years old)

In nature

By themselves, without human supervision, cows do not live in nature. Someone is sure to hold them. But, by biological standards, these animals can live 30 years, maximum - 35. At the same time, bulls live less than females.

Species durationBy gender
30-3525-30 (cows)
15-20 (bulls)

Phases of a cow's life

After birth, the calf remains with the mother or is fed with milk or milk substitute for up to 6 months. From 1.5-2 months he is taught to eat solid food. Sexual maturity occurs, on average, at 7 months. For the first time, young heifers are born at 1.5 years old, breeding bulls at 2 years old. Bearing a calf lasts 9-10 months, at which time the body of heifers is still growing. Finally, it is formed by the age of 4.

Cows happen every year to have a calf every year. The duration of lactation is 10-11 months. If a cow does not become pregnant and remains celibate, it will happen the next year. With proper milking, lactation can be prolonged even in females that are stagnant. After 4 years, the animal is considered an adult and lives for as many years until its maintenance is economically profitable.

Is it possible to increase the lifespan

A cow is a living being, her body responds to both good and bad maintenance. If you provide livestock with a spacious, bright, clean, warm room, properly feed, walk and treat diseases, it will be possible to prolong its life as much as possible. The best results were observed in stall-pasture housing, when cows have the opportunity to graze and move in pastures, and under unfavorable conditions they can stay indoors without being exposed to them. Nutrition is of great importance. Livestock that get all the nutrients they need in the quantities they need can live longer.

If animals are malnourished, eat monotonous or poor-quality food, their lifespan is reduced.

Diseases significantly reduce the life potential of animals. There are many diseases that undermine health or even end in the death of animals. Disease prevention - vaccination against infections, disinfection of premises and equipment, veterinary examinations and quarantine measures - will help keep diseases under control.

Dairy cows often have postpartum pathologies - diseases of the reproductive organs, inflammation of the udder. To prolong the life of the cow and its productive use, it is necessary to monitor the state of its health during this period. The disease detected in time and the treatment carried out make it possible to avoid further problems, culling of the animal due to its unsuitability for use.

Cleanliness is a guarantee of health, so you need to clean the stall and change the bedding every day. Clean the skin of the animal, massage the udder before milking and wash it. Make sure that the cow does not lie on the cold floor.

As for the calves, the first days of their life, when they receive colostrum, determine how further development will go, the strength of the immune system and the possible productivity. This is followed by the suckling period, when the calves must be fed with milk. If they do not get enough of it, it affects development, shortens the life span, despite the genetic potential.

How do you know your age?

It is sometimes necessary to determine the age of the cow when buying. In animal husbandry, the age of animals is determined by the teeth. Especially this method of determination works well with herbivores, whose teeth are erased from eating roughage by a certain age.

By the nature of the measurements, you can calculate how old a cow is, with an accuracy of a year, and for calves, up to a couple of months. In calves, age is determined by changing milk teeth to permanent ones. The calf is born with 4 incisors, which are sharper and thinner than the permanent ones. Within a week, he may have 8 teeth (edges begin to erupt). They complete development by 3-4 months. At six months, the calf has 4 molars.

In one-year-old calves, the enamel on the hooks is erased, by the age of 2 they fall out. Then, in their place, permanent ones erupt and grow. By the age of 2.5, the middle incisors fall out, by the age of 3, new ones grow. The edges are replaced by permanent ones by the age of 4, and by the age of 4.5 they are fully developed. In adult cows, the set of teeth changes completely by the age of 4. In the next six months, the incisors begin to wear off (except for the edges). The upper edge of these teeth is erased by the age of 5, gaps appear between the incisors.

At the age of 6, changes are visible on the surface of the edges, the toes and middle incisors are erased. By the age of 7, the enamel on the tongue part of the hooks is practically erased; by the age of 8, their rubbing part becomes square. At 9 years old, the enamel of the edges disappears, at 10 - the incisors shorten and become thinner. The teeth take the shape of a square.

At the age of 11-12, the hooks are rounded off. In the next 2 years, the enamel is erased on all incisors, by the age of 15-18, hemp remains from them. After that, it becomes difficult to determine the age of the cattle. Yes, this is not necessary, since these are already old animals and unsuitable for economic use.

You can also determine the age by horns (in horned breeds). In calves, the rudiments of horns appear 2 weeks after birth. Horns erupt at 2 months, grow at the same rate, adding 1 cm every month.

In cows that have given birth, age can be calculated by the number of rings on the horns. They form after childbirth. If we take into account that for the first time a cow brings a calf at 2.5-3 years old, you need to add 3 to the number of rings - the resulting figure will be the desired number. However, this method will only be correct if the cow has calved annually, since no rings are formed in unmarried individuals.

The lifespan of cows depends on genetically built potential and conditions of care and maintenance. If you properly feed, drink, walk, clean, monitor the cleanliness of the room and the air in it, prevent and treat diseases, a cow at home can live a long time. All this time she will be able to thank her for her care with milk and calves. With proper organization of raising and breeding, keeping livestock can be very beneficial.


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