Types and schemes of cattle feeders and how to do it yourself at home

Types and schemes of cattle feeders and how to do it yourself at home

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A properly selected cattle feeder and drinker will make the work of the farmer easier and make the process of feeding the animals easier and more comfortable. When choosing, the basic requirements for feeders are taken into account, as well as their type and purpose. For proper nutrition of the cows, you need to install separate drinkers, containers for combined and dry feed, feeders in the stall and in the pasture.

Types of feeders and requirements for them

Cattle feeders differ depending on the purpose, type of construction, materials from which they are made. To establish the process of feeding animals, it is necessary to install structures for hay, dry feed, drinking systems and troughs. Feeders for the stall and for the pasture are installed separately.

For the stall

If the farm has a small number of livestock, hanging feeders and troughs are used. For calves, a compact nursery is suitable, for the rest of the livestock - straight or inclined structures. Key Features of Hanging Stall Feeders:

  • direct type models - it is convenient to load feed into them, they are easy to clean;
  • inclined structures - it is easy to maintain order in the barn with them, they are also convenient for animals;
  • automatic models differ in price, but with them the feed is automated.

Automatic feeding systems require regular cleaning, but when properly operated, they minimize the work of the farmer. The feed is dosed into the container in a specified amount at specified intervals.

If the barn contains a large herd, a table type is worth considering. The feeding table is a long structure located on a hill so that the animals can easily get food. The feed table is additionally equipped with partitions to facilitate the cleaning process.

In the pasture

Cow feeders in the pasture are installed to provide the animal with food for the whole day. Depending on the type of content, the appropriate type of feeder is selected. Also, a separate design is selected for each type of feed.

  1. Hay cubes and grates are perforated structures. It is important that the feed does not spill and that the cows can have access to the hay.
  2. For grain and combined feed, plastic or metal-plastic automatic models are used, or ordinary containers made of the same materials.

Individual cow feeders are used for tethered housing, while collective models can be selected for free-range housing.

Expert opinion

Zarechny Maxim Valerievich

Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.

Attention! Pasture structures must be safe so that animals do not get stuck in them and do not get injured.

For concentrates and mixed feed

Feeding with concentrates and compound feed is necessary for the full growth of cows and bulls, as well as to maintain high productivity. For farms, it is convenient to use automatic feeding systems. Their main advantages are:

  • the ability to establish feeding without human intervention;
  • the presence of a dispenser;
  • ease of care;
  • spaciousness;
  • security.

Automatic structures are not used only in cases where there are particularly violent animals in the herd that need to create special conditions for keeping.

For hay and dry feed

Hay and dry feed can be used to feed cattle, both in the stall and in the pasture. For these purposes, it is necessary to equip a separate feeder. The most convenient are rectangular and conical metal feeders with lattice walls. The cows have access to the pre-loaded hay through the distance between the bars, without the feed scattering in the stall or pasture. This simplifies the cleaning process.

Here are the criteria for choosing a feeder for dry food and hay:

  • capacity of the container, the correspondence of volumes to the needs of livestock
  • safety - the structure should not contain sharp corners, protruding elements and small parts that can be broken by an animal;
  • it must be made of durable materials;
  • cattle feeders should be easy to clean.

The feeder should cover the needs of the flock. For a large herd, it is worth purchasing and installing several. The number and size of feeders should be calculated so that the entire herd can have access to feed at the same time. It is important that the structure is made without sharp corners or parts that could injure the animal.

How to make a feeder yourself at home

For a small herd of cows, you can make feeders yourself using ready-made schemes.

With folding walls

You can make a do-it-yourself feeder with folding walls. To do this, you need to prepare the necessary materials and tools, take the finished drawing and follow the step-by-step instructions.

What you need to make:

  • jigsaw, saw - electric or hand;
  • drawing - ready-made or created according to individual measurements;
  • tape measure for measuring boards before cutting;
  • sander and sandpaper;
  • fasteners - nails, screws;
  • boards - softwood, oak or other practical and durable options;
  • metal profile, corner or wooden slats;
  • latches or hooks for fixing folding walls, awnings.

Attention! When making cow feeders, it is best to use quality wood. Otherwise, the structure quickly deforms under the influence of moisture or the sun. The best option is hardwood.

First, you need to measure and cut the wood according to the drawing. The slats knock into a gutter without a front wall - it is done separately. The hinged wall must be fixed to the gutter using metal canopies, and hooks or latches must be installed at the top on both sides for fixing.

The hinged wall troughs are easy to clean. In creating the structure, the principle of the bunker model is used. It will operate in a semi-automatic mode.

Group feeder

To create a group feeder, concrete is used as a base and a ceramic half pipe is used to make a gutter. The following scheme is suitable for this. You can change the length of the chute, depending on the number of livestock.

Initially, it is worth making concrete supports, which must be well fixed so that the structure is stable. Fencing grilles are made of reinforcement, which are fixed with holders.

Reliable and convenient group feeders are also made of metal slats and galvanized sheet metal sheets. A ready-made scheme is suitable for manufacturing. You can change the dimensions if necessary.

According to the picture, sizes are selected, and you can experiment with materials. You will need reinforcement, a metal corner or pipe, hardwood slats.

Drinker for cows

To maintain health and milk production, cows need to be supplied with clean drinking water every day. For this, drinkers are equipped - ordinary containers or automatic structures. If there are no more than 5-10 cows in the herd, troughs and drinking tubs can be installed, but periodically washed and sterilized. It is important that animals receive clean drinking water every day - the health of livestock and the quality of milk produced by cows depend on this.

Important! When choosing a drinker, you need to take into account the needs of the cows - each adult should receive 70 liters of water per day.

Modern drinkers can be roughly divided into two groups:

  • individual;
  • group.

Individual drinkers have the advantage of reducing the risk of infection spreading within the herd. To date, manufacturers offer drinkers of the following varieties:

  • cup drinkers - with a tongue or a valve, are rarely used and only for livestock without nose rings, not practical due to the need for frequent cleaning;
  • ball and valve drinkers - suitable for open pens and pastures, do not freeze even without a heating cable;
  • drinking troughs are the best option, they are containers in which the water level is adjusted by means of a float mechanism;
  • valve drinkers with a float mechanism - a convenient model with a high flow capacity.

Drinkers are made of plastic or a combination of this material with different types of stainless steel. Drinking bowls for cattle must be selected taking into account the number of livestock and its needs.

The most convenient option is automatic drinking systems with uninterrupted water supply and frost protection.

Correctly selected cattle feeders and drinkers make it easier to keep and feed the animals. It is important to think over everything in such a way as to automate feeding, facilitate the cleaning process in the stall and calculate the volume of the feeders so that all livestock receive adequate nutrition.

Watch the video: How to make feeds with small feed mill plant? (July 2022).


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