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The development of salmonellosis in chickens is observed quite often and provokes negative consequences for the health of birds. This bacterial disease causes damage to the digestive tract of birds. With a subacute or chronic course of the disease, there is a risk of cases of arthritis and pneumonia. If symptoms of the disease occur, it is necessary to take action in time. Otherwise, there is a threat of the rapid spread of the infection.
Is there a danger to humans?
Birds with salmonellosis are dangerous to humans. When eating infected foods - eggs or meat - there is a risk of developing a severe toxic infection.
Salmonella lives in the intestines of birds. However, it can fall on eggs or carcasses at the time of slaughter. In case of violation of the rules for storing products or insufficient processing, there is a threat of complex mass poisoning.
Causes of the onset of the disease
Infection of chickens usually occurs through feed or water. The penetration of the pathogen into the body does not always lead to the development of the disease. It all depends on the type of Salmonella, the characteristics of keeping birds, age category and disease resistance.
The risk of developing salmonellosis increases with overheating or hypothermia of chickens, violation of sanitary standards, high concentration of livestock, stagnant fluid. In incubators, mass infection of young birds during hatching is often observed.
In large farms, Salmonella enters with feed. This also happens with breeding eggs. In this case, there is an outbreak of salmonellosis, which can last a whole year. After that, the technological replacement of livestock contributes to the improvement of the economy.
Salmonella infection leads to the development of pathology. This pathogen has several types:
Salmonella is considered a fairly persistent bacteria. In poultry droppings, they are present for up to 4 months, in tap water - 2, in reservoirs - 7. Salmonella can persist in the ground for a whole year.
The disease is dangerous to humans and all animals.
Stages and symptoms of salmonellosis in chickens
Salmonellosis is dangerous from the first day of infection. In case of infection through food or water, the latent period lasts a week. If the bird has been infected by the air, symptoms of the disease appear after a day.
Symptoms in chicks include the following:
- general weakness;
- loss of feathers;
- loss of appetite;
- breathing disorder;
- weak growth.
In adult chickens
In adults, the key manifestations of the disease include the following:
- rare plumage;
- loss of vision;
- dull scallop;
- a sharp decline in productivity.
To select the means for treating the disease, it is worthwhile to carry out a diagnosis. For this, it is recommended to contact your veterinarian. The doctor should examine the chickens and take blood tests. Also, some organs of the bird should be sent for laboratory research.
In the course of diagnostics, the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is assessed. This allows you to choose the most effective drug.
Disease treatment methods
If signs of a disease are detected, you need to immediately take action:
- It is recommended to immediately isolate a sick bird from other individuals. The quarantine must last at least 10 days. During this time, it is worth observing the bird.
- Carry out preventive treatment of the chicken coop. An isolated individual should be returned to the flock only after repeated analyzes.
- Use antibiotics to treat the disease. They are injected or added to feed or water.
- A chicken coop in which salmonella has been identified should be kept under control. This will help avoid spreading the infection to other pets.
- Nests and eggs should be treated with special agents - Metacid or Virkon.
- Disinfect the chicken coop. Immediately give the hatched chickens probiotics.
It is advisable to treat pathology only at an early stage. With pronounced manifestations of salmonellosis, chickens are destroyed. Conditionally healthy birds are treated prophylactically. To do this, antibiotics are mixed into food and drink.
In case of pathology, the following means are used:
To support the digestive organs of birds during the period of antibacterial treatment, it is worth giving them probiotics.
It is important to follow the dosage prescribed by your veterinarian.
It is impossible to eliminate the disease with folk remedies. As a preventive or additional means, you can use a decoction of chamomile or calendula. Plantain and tansy are also great. Such agents are added to the water during and after the completion of therapy.
In adult birds, the pathology is chronic. This means that they carry the bacteria all their lives. Therefore, birds in which the pathogen was found should be immediately discarded from the herd. Chickens can also carry bacteria. In this case, the disease does not develop, but the pathogen is excreted with droppings or eggs.
Since salmonellosis is dangerous for people, the state should actively monitor farms and the composition of products that go to retail outlets. To avoid the spread of infection, it is worth taking the following measures:
- Assess the condition of the livestock and the conditions of its maintenance. At the same time, it is worth controlling large-scale production and small farms. Checks for the presence of bacterial microorganisms are mandatory.
- Check food for chickens. In this case, it is worth controlling different types of feed.
- Analyze the condition of incubators. They are checked for the presence of Salmonella in the eggs and hygiene recommendations are followed.
- Analyze products in the laboratory. Before entering retail outlets, meat must undergo mandatory control.
- Monitor employees. Farm personnel should be inspected annually.
- Carry out control before issuing a certificate. In such a situation, the enterprise must comply with all conditions that imply bacterial tests.
If salmonella is detected, farmers are prohibited from selling meat, eggs and even chicken feathers. Infected birds must be slaughtered. In this case, the affected organs are disposed of.
To minimize the threat of salmonellosis development, it is worth following these rules:
- carefully examine the birds;
- if signs of illness are detected, isolate the affected chickens;
- treat the chicken coop with disinfectants;
- vaccinate chickens;
- give birds feed with useful additives that help to strengthen the immune system.
The development of salmonellosis in chickens is a danger to birds and humans. To cope with the disease and avoid its spread, it is worth taking adequate measures in a timely manner. For this, infected birds are isolated, antibiotics are used, and the chicken coop is treated..