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Onion (from Latin Állium) is a very popular garden culture in our country. The plant belongs to the genus of biennial and perennial herbaceous plants from the subfamily Onion, or Alliaceae. To get a high, high-quality onion crop, you need to take a number of measures to prepare this vegetable crop for planting.
Preparing for head landing
Pre-planting preparation protects the onion crop from the main adverse weather conditions and disease damage. When preparing for planting, planting material must be dried in a dry and warm room.
Then the onion sets should be warmed up and the following measures taken:
- set must be dry and free from visible damage or rot;
- in early spring, pour the bulbs with warm water for about 15-20 minutes;
- soak sevoc in complex fertilizer overnight.
Without the use of warming and soaking measures, the onion is not too suitable for growing on the head and will go to the pen or arrow. You can also preheat the prepared planting material for two weeks at a temperature of 18−20 ° C, and then the temperature regime must be increased to 29-30 ° C and warm the bulbs for eight hours. Without preparation, it will not be possible to obtain high-quality turnips, and plants will not be resistant to infections. A good result is the cultivation of a family onion, which in each nest can form several marketable bulbs at once. Turnip onion can be grown in a two-year culture, with preliminary cultivation of seeds, in an annual crop from seeds, as well as in an annual culture with preliminary cultivation of seedlings.
Onion: Preparing for the Landing
Preparing for landing on the pen
If necessary, plant the onion on the feather planting material should also be correctly and timely soaked. Usually, soaking is carried out in the following composition solutions:
- soaking onion set for 10 hours in a solution of complex fertilizers for growing vegetables at the rate of 1 tablespoon per bucket of water;
- prepared seeds for planting can be kept for several hours in saline, which will prevent damage to the onion fly;
- in order to prevent fungal infections, a presowing soaking is carried out for a quarter of an hour in a solution based on a teaspoon of copper sulfate in 10 l of water;
- if necessary, copper sulfate can be replaced with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Before soaking, the onion sets must be sorted out and all peeled or too dry husk removed. At the next stage, planting material is sorted by size, and then trimming the apical part with clean scissors or a knife. After such events, it appears in the shortest possible time and grows more even, without the presence of creases.
Preparation of soil and beds
The cultivation of any vegetable crops always begins with the selection of a site for planting. To cultivate onions, a sunny place should be reserved or a garden crop should be placed in light partial shade. It is strictly forbidden to plant onions in a lowland or in areas with stagnation of moisture in the soil.
To get the head or feather of a high-quality onion, you need to correctly prepare the beds and directly the soil. Preparing quality soil for growing onions is not difficult. It is enough to adhere to the following recommendations:
- the onion needs good illumination and wind blowing, which helps prevent infection by fungal infections;
- the onion is a plant of long daylight hours, and with insufficient lighting bulbs can grow small, loose, unsuitable for storage;
- the culture is demanding on indicators of soil fertility and is able to intensively consume nutrients at the very beginning of the growing season;
- it is very important to have ridges for growing onions in areas represented by neutral soils;
- any onions are very demanding on moisture, and with its lack, weak development and premature transition to the dormant stage are observed;
- excess moisture in the ridges promotes rapid growth and the formation of juicy, but watery bulbs with poor keeping quality.
Soil preparation on the site should be carried out in advance. As a rule, in the autumn, with deep digging, about 5-7 kg of humus is added per square meter. A good result is the introduction of 8-10 kg of manure per square meter of planted area. It is recommended to make about one and a half kilograms of fluff-lime for each hundredth. Experienced gardeners prefer to plant sidereal plants such as mustard, rape or peas at the stage of preparing the soil for cultivating onions. The most suitable precursors for onions are cabbage, cucumbers and tomatoes.
Immediately before planting, the soil should be thoroughly loosened and all weed vegetation removed. It is important to remember that a significant amount of nitrogen-containing fertilizers cannot be added to the onion ridges, which reduces the keeping quality of the harvested crop. The neighborhood of onions with cucumber, carrots, beets and tomatoes is considered to be favorable. You can also plant onions next to strawberries, radishes or lettuce. To scare away onion ridges of plant parasites, it is recommended to plant calendula and chamomile.
Dates and rules of landing
If a choice is made in favor of sowing seeds, then before sowing the ridges should be marked, deviating from the edge of about 10 cm.barter is sown in furrows with a distance of one and a half centimeters. Sowing ridges must be watered and covered with lutrasil. However, most often in the conditions of home gardening, the seed is planted in the form of pre-prepared bulbs.
In the first decade of May, sowing should be planted with a depth of 4–5 cm and at a distance of about 8–10 cm from each other. The distance between the rows should be 25-30 cm. To obtain a feather, you can plant onions in the soil a little thicker, with a distance of 5-7 cm between the plants. Before winter, it is advisable to sow a small sowing-oats, not forming arrows.
In the autumn period, it is recommended to sow only the most cold-resistant varieties, such as Arzamassky, Strigunovsky, Danilovsky and Stuttgart. You need to plant sowing on ridges where the snow mass melts as early as possible, and there is also no stagnation of moisture, regardless of the time of year. Autumn planting is carried out in the first decade of October, in a not completely cooled soil, just before the onset of frost. Immediately after the onset of the first sufficiently strong planting frosts, it is recommended to cover with fir spruce branches, which will protect the bulbs from freezing.
How to plant onion sets
Further care for the crop consists of timely removal of covering material in spring, regular removal of any weed vegetation, loosening of soil between rows, watering and fertilizing several times during the growing season. Compliance with agricultural technology ensures a high and high-quality onion crop in a personal plot.