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Coniferous trees are very popular in landscape design. To get an attractive and healthy plant, you need to know and follow the rules of planting and care, as well as correctly use fertilizers for conifers in spring and autumn. Such plants in adulthood are more difficult to transplant than deciduous crops, however, young specimens show a rather high percentage of survival.
How and when to plant and transplant in the fall
Soil and climatic conditions in different regions of our country have significant differences, and in order to properly plant conifers on a site, weather factors should be taken into account. Landing can be carried out in October or November. Preparing plants for the winter is a complex chemical process, during which the chemical composition of cells is adjusted by reducing the amount of water and increasing the content of carbohydrates. After the plant goes into the so-called hibernation, it can be safely transplanted and planted in a permanent place.
According to the advice of specialists and experienced gardeners, autumn planting of conifers can be carried out in August or September, at the stage of active growth and development of the suction root system. High survival rates are ensured by the ability of the coniferous root system to quickly resume. In any case, it should be remembered that planting conifers should be without violating the integrity of the earthen coma around the root system. In this case, the plant takes root very quickly.
How and when to plant and transplant in spring
Planting of blue spruce, juniper, fir and other conifers, popular in our country, can be done not only in autumn after the heat subsides, but also in early spring, even before very hot weather sets in. The technology and rules for planting conifers are as follows:
- If the site is represented by heavy and clay soils, then it is necessary to provide the plants with drainage from brick battle and sand.
- The distance between planted conifers depends on the characteristics of the growth and development of the tree: dwarf varieties should be planted with a distance of 30-35 cm, and tall plants are planted with a distance of 50-70 cm.
- Most conifers grow well on soils, which include turf, peat, humus and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1, with the addition of 0.25 kg of nitrophoska or 0.15 kg of Kemira Universal.
- A good result is given by introducing about 8-10 kg of sawdust into the planting pit when planting fir seedlings.
- When planting seedlings of yew, pine and juniper Cossack in the planting hole, it is advisable to add lime.
Conifers: planting and care
The landing area should be prepared depending on the biological characteristics of the planted crop:
- most varieties of pine and juniper are light-loving, and they are best planted in open and well-lit areas;
- for the cultivation of arborvitae and arborvitae, a place with sufficient lighting and partial shade can be reserved;
- plant fir, spruce, tsugu should be in the presence of sufficient shade, and the yew belongs to the category of the most shade-tolerant.
|Name of coniferous culture||The composition of the soil substrate||Ratio of components|
|Pine||Sand, peat, turf soil||2 : 1 : 1|
|Spruce||Sod and leaf soil, peat, sand||2 : 2 : 1 : 1|
|Larch||Leaf soil, peat and sand||3 : 2 : 1|
|Juniper||Peat, sand and soddy soil||2 : 1 : 1|
|Fir||Leaf soil, clay, peat and sand||3 : 2 : 1 : 1|
|Thuja||Soddy or leafy soil, peat and sand||2 : 1 : 1|
The root neck of the plant must necessarily be located on the same level with the soil. For the best indicators of survival it is recommended to carry out foliar top dressing "Epin". A prerequisite for faster adaptation of the plant in a permanent place is abundant watering.
Fertilizing and fertilizers
Fertilizing for conifers is important mainly for young plants that have a weak root system. In order to feed the conifers, the following tools are used:
- compost is the best traditional fertilizer and imitates forest soil; the standard compost layer in the trunk circles is 8-10 cm;
- ready-made fertilizers based on compost, including BIUD and NOR, which must be applied in the early spring, have good efficiency;
- vermicompost in liquid form, as well as in granules and powder, is scattered across the ground in near-stem circles, and then mixed with soil; the best and most popular fertilizers based on biohumus are "Greenworld", "Pokon", "WMD", "Bona Forte";
- The treatment of conifers with a special nutrient spray in the spring and summer is very effective.
All dressings should be accompanied by abundant watering at the rate of 150-180 liters per adult plant. Most of all, thuja and fir need abundant irrigation measures. It is also recommended to carry out spring and autumn sprinkling of conifers, which allows you to remove dirt from the aerial parts of plants.
Trimming and processing
Usually, when growing conifers, thinning and removal of dried tree branches is carried out according to the following rules:
- pruning should be done no earlier than the second year after planting the plant in a permanent place;
- at a time it is necessary to trim no more than 25-30% of the total green mass of the plant;
- pruning is required in overalls, due to the release of resin by the plants, which is not washed;
- for pruning conifers, a well-sharpened garden tool should be used, which should be periodically treated with disinfectants.
For varieties of conifers with a spring type of flowering, pruning is carried out in August. Larch and cypress are best trimmed in November.
In order to process coniferous crops as efficiently as possible, it is very important to correctly assess the type of plant damage. Most often, conifers are affected by rust of larch and pine, by the rust of the vesiculate pine of Weymouth and cedar, by the common and snow shute, as well as by fusarium and other fungal diseases. For the purpose of prevention, tank mixtures are used, as well as insectofungicides, which are sprayed several times during the growing season.
The most widely used method of cutting a kidney, which involves performing trimming according to the following rules:
- indicators of the slope of the cut on the kidney should be no more than 45 degrees;
- the elevation of the lower edge above the base should be about 2-2.5 mm;
- raising the branch, pruning should be performed on the external kidney, and if there are tilted branches, the cut is performed on the inner kidney;
- if it is necessary to rotate the branches in a tier, then a side cut is performed;
- the shortening of the shoots implies the length of the fat not more than a couple of centimeters.
Juniper and thuja: characteristics of plants
When creating crowns on garden conifers, experts recommend molding trimming only after the growth of the shoots is completed.