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Gladiolus, or fennel (from the Latin Gladíolus), belongs to the genus of perennial tuberous bulbous plants from the Iris family, or Iridaceae. The homeland of the plant is the tropics and subtropics in Africa and the Mediterranean, Central Europe and Asia, Western Siberia. More and more gardeners grow these elegant flowers in the Urals, where they need special care.
Gladioli belong to the category of perennial bulbous plantswhich are very widespread in home gardening in our country. The corm is round in shape, annually renewable, covered with membranous scales, the color of which can vary from white to black-cherry.
Stems are straight-growing, without branching, of a single type, leafy. The average height of the aerial part can be 0.5-1.5 m. Thin leaves of a linear or xiphoid type can reach a length of 0.5-0.8 m and have a characteristic, bluish-green color.
Flowers are collected in inflorescences of a one-sided, bilateral or spiral spike-shaped type with a length of not more than 0.8 m. The inflorescence can be loose, medium-dense or dense. Sedentary flowers have a simple funnel-shaped perianth, which consists of six unequal lobes. The fruits are represented by a tricuspid box with a large number of round or oval brown seeds. All garden gladioli are obtained as a result of crossbreeding of various species of European and African origin, which makes it possible to classify varieties as a hybrid garden variety.
The best varieties
In recent years, domestic and foreign breeders have carried out painstaking work to develop new, more complex, with the presence of improved signs of hybrid forms, which gradually replaced the old varieties and made it possible to cultivate a flower culture in an adverse climate.
The territory of the Urals is characterized not only by a harsh continental climate, but also by rather uneven precipitation. In the Urals, it is recommended to plant gladioli, belonging to the category of the most stable hybrids and variety forms.
|Grade name||Botanical Description||Flowers||Varietal Features|
|Ben Venuto, or "Ben Venuto"||Height 1.1-1.3 m, of which an inflorescence of spikes 40 cm high||Pale pink with a peach tint||It blooms from July to September. Used for cutting, forcing, landscaping|
|Oasis, or "Oasis"||1.2-1.4 m high, with long and narrow, sword-shaped leaves||Large flowers with a lime tint||It is used both for pot growing and for cutting|
|Vista or Vista||1.1-1.3 m high, with xiphoid leaves||Large flowers of a three-tone shade||The color of the flowers is similar to Pansies. Used on flowerbeds and mixborders|
|Sonate, or "Sonata"||Tall, 0.9-1.1 m, with pale green xiphoid leaves||Saturated lilac flowers with white stains in the center||For distillation and gardening|
|Ocilla, or Ocilla||1.2-1.3 m high, it is recommended to tie it to the support||Butterfly-shaped flowers of snow-white color||Suitable for cutting and gardening|
|Passos, or "Passos"||1.2 m high with an inflorescence length of 0.45 m||Exotic flowers with lilac petals and violet-purple stripes||Corrugated Butterfly Large-Flowered Variety|
|Azurro, or "Azurro"||No more than a meter high||The color of rich red wine, lighter in the center||Great for cutting|
When and how to sprout seedlings
Gladiolus refers to plants of southern origin, therefore, in the Urals, absolutely any varieties, including ultra-early ones, are not able to fully complete the growing season. Climatic features often cause frost damage even in the last decade of August, which implies the earliest possible planting of planting material in the ground. Slight frosts flower plantings carry easily enough. But late planting is often the reason for reducing the weight of the nest and reducing the number of large corms or the abundance of flowering plants.
Gladiolus: landing and care
Pre-planting preparation of gladioli consists in cleaning bulbs, germinating and preventing diseases. Many flower growers successfully apply the planting of bulbs for seedlings and recommend pre-germinating planting material.
Germinated bulbs of gladiolus always give faster growth and flowering as early as possible. As a rule, the process of germination of gladioli takes two weeks, and it technology involves the following activities:
- carefully inspect the planting material for damage by diseases or pests;
- carefully but thoroughly clean the gladiolus bulbs prepared for planting from all dry and damaged hiding flakes;
- put the bulbs in one layer in clean and dry containers, and then install them in a warm place with diffuse lighting;
- in order to prevent fungal infections, it is recommended to soak the bulbs for two hours in a warm pink solution of potassium permanganate;
- a good result is given by soaking in a solution of copper sulfate at the rate of 5 g of the drug per 1 liter of water.
About five hours before planting on seedlings or in open ground, bulbs should be placed in a solution of trace elements or wood ash. Planting dates may vary depending on weather conditions and the level of soil warming up on the plot for growing flower crops.
It is recommended to plant gladioli on flower beds in open ground in May. The technology for planting prepared bulbs is as follows:
- the landing area should be well-lit by sunlight;
- the soil on the site should be light sandy and humus-rich soil;
- Every year, a change of the landing area is carried out, which reduces the risk of plant damage by diseases and pests;
- it is not recommended to plant gladioli near cruciferous garden crops or to use for planting areas after growing cabbage, turnips, radishes, horseradish or mustard seed;
- the depth of planting material depends on the size of the bulb and the type of soil on the site;
- on light soils, the depth of immersion of the bulb should be no more than 4 diameters of planting material;
- on heavy or not too rich in humus soils immersion depth should not exceed three diameters;
- the standard planting scheme depends on varietal characteristics and personal preferences of gardeners;
- after planting, mulching is carried out, protecting the soil from excessive drying out and growth of weeds.
Planting material of different levels of development is recommended to be planted separately. For the full growth and development of flower culture, the soil temperature should be at least 15-18 ° C, and temperature indicators of air to be at the level of 18-25 ° C. If the soil temperature exceeds 28 ° C, then very often there is a complete death of the generative organs of the gladiolus at the initial stage of their formation. That is why the mulch should be of high quality, protecting the planting not only from freezing, but also overheating.
We also offer you to learn about the features of hydrangea cultivation in the Urals.
Proper care for gladioli involves the following activities:
- gladiolus need a fairly rare, but plentiful watering, at the rate of once a week, warm water, using 10 liters of water per square meter;
- Gladioli should be fed with full, complex mineral fertilizers;
- In total, during the growing season, three top dressings should be carried out: after the growth of the third leaf, at the beginning of the budding stage, at the beginning of flowering and after flowering.
How to store gladioli
Cutting should be done according to all the rules, leaving at least four leaves completely covering the remainder of the peduncle. Garden gladioli are ready for harvesting a month after flowering.